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Agency Analysis

Agency Analysis

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Agency Analysis


The United States has seen a lot of reform in elevating the quality of life and health of its inhabitants. For a country to progress its health system should be well-functioning in addressing the needs of its citizens and providing sustained economic growth (Atun et al, 2015). In fulfilling the requirements of its citizen, the united states department of health and human services is working hard to enhance the well being of its citizens.


Health and human services agencies of united states of America has 11 operating divisions with eight agencies in public health. The health and human services agency of the united states works on a variety of health and human services issues. It is entitled to do research regarding diseases and providing the best techniques to protect the American people.

The president fiscal budget is always allocated to meet the needs of the people. A discretionary of $95.4 billion and $1,120 is promised by the government this year to meet the needs of the nation. The government makes the use of the money collected as a tax in the best possible way (Hhs.gov, 2019). The budget of the health agency always meets the requirements set up by the global health and security agenda which is a multilateral initiative to prevent detect and establish biological threats.

The united states health and human services agency has evolved within last years has it has met the requirement of the changing world and people. The united states health agency undergoes a review every four years so that the reform and strengthen the process of providing sustainable health facilities to its people(HHS.gov, 2019).

The fundamental role is to identify a prevalent disease and conduct research on it to eliminate it. It addresses the issues of obesity and anxiety that is faced by most of the Americans now. The introduction of junk food in our daily life has fueled the diseases and made the condition worst (Khodabakhshi Koolaee et al., 2015). It provides preventive measures so that the spread of disease can be culminated and provide resources to the patients to health they eat smart and exercising regularly. It ensures the routine health screenings and vaccinations of the patients.


Department of health and human services is one of the principal agency that is entitled to help cater the health issues being faced by the people. It provides essential medical treatment to the people and ensures that each citizen get proper health facilities and quality consultation.it has evolved as an agency by evolving with the time and the adoptions of different rules that were set up to ensure the quality health services. The affordable care act that was passed in 2010 insured comprehensive health reforms. It insured programs for children and women by providing them with proper vaccination despite the economic constraints of the families. It ensured education to people so that they can avoid possible health threats.

With the changing world, diseases are also changing. The environmental and sociological effects are causing new problems that are a severe challenge to this agency. However, it has evolved with time with the workforce that is renowned and will serve the nation in the coming years.


Atun, R., De Andrade, L. O. M., Almeida, G., Cotlear, D., Dmytraczenko, T., Frenz, P., ... & De Paula, J. B. (2015). Health-system reform and universal health coverage in Latin America. The Lancet, 385(9974), 1230-1247.

Hhs.gov. (2019). [online] Available at: https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/fy-2019-budget-in-brief.pdf [Accessed 15 Jan. 2019].

HHS.gov. (2019). Strategic Goal 1. [online] Available at: https://www.hhs.gov/about/strategic-plan/strategic-goal-1/index.html [Accessed 15 Jan. 2019].

Khodabakhshi Koolaee, A., Rasstak, H., Mansour, L., & Rashidkhani, B. (2015). The relationship between dietary patterns, body image, and anxiety in adolescents’ male students. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 2(4), 12-25.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Aggregate Planning

Aggregate Planning

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Aggregate Planning

Sales and operations planning is considered as a critical process that aims to fulfill the demands of customers through production, distribution, and purchasing. Consideration of sales and operations planning is an effective way to maintain a balance between demand and supply ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"8aVXemNj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Tuomikangas & Kaipia, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Tuomikangas & Kaipia, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":4,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/DICCVPZJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/DICCVPZJ"],"itemData":{"id":4,"type":"article-journal","title":"A coordination framework for sales and operations planning (S&OP): Synthesis from the literature","container-title":"International Journal of Production Economics","page":"243-262","volume":"154","author":[{"family":"Tuomikangas","given":"Nina"},{"family":"Kaipia","given":"Riikka"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Tuomikangas & Kaipia, 2014). It also ensures that various operations are conducted with efficiency and speed.

It is notable to mention that sales planning include certain decisions regarding competitive priorities and market share. It is highly considerate for an organization to establish a business plan and achieve its objectives. Sales planning allow an organization to achieve its objectives in terms of critical decisions about customer service levels and profit margins in the served markets ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"eDiNLRc9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Oliva & Watson, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Oliva & Watson, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":9,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/QU8W2MGJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/QU8W2MGJ"],"itemData":{"id":9,"type":"article-journal","title":"Cross-functional alignment in supply chain planning: A case study of sales and operations planning","container-title":"Journal of Operations Management","page":"434-448","volume":"29","issue":"5","author":[{"family":"Oliva","given":"Rogelio"},{"family":"Watson","given":"Noel"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Oliva & Watson, 2011). The frequency of sales planning varies from company to company depending upon the nature of business. However, a period of 6 to 18 months is usually required by an organization to conduct its sales planning. On the other hand, operation planning includes certain decisions regarding hiring, firing, staffing levels, inventory levels, aggregate production rate, use of overtime, under time, and backorders. These decisions are made to comply with the sales or marketing plan of an organization. It is important to mention that the frequency of operations planning varies from company to company, but a period of 6 to 18 months is usually required to conduct operations planning.

Aggregate planning (sales and operations planning) provides an effective opportunity for an organization to improve inventory management and accuracy in budget forecasting. It provides an extensive framework for an organization to manage its business strategy to optimize resources ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Nj4622nj","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(T\\uc0\\u252{}rkay, Sara\\uc0\\u231{}o\\uc0\\u287{}lu, & Arslan, 2016)","plainCitation":"(Türkay, Saraçoğlu, & Arslan, 2016)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":7,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/7X8KA6SS"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/CNBGYtRv/items/7X8KA6SS"],"itemData":{"id":7,"type":"article-journal","title":"Sustainability in supply chain management: Aggregate planning from sustainability perspective","container-title":"PloS one","page":"e0147502","volume":"11","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"Türkay","given":"Metin"},{"family":"Saraçoğlu","given":"Öztürk"},{"family":"Arslan","given":"Mehmet Can"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2016"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Türkay, Saraçoğlu, & Arslan, 2016). Incorporation of sales and operations planning enables an organization to maintain a balance between supply and demand through better collaboration among departments. It is notable to mention that timely customer service is possible through improved inventory and backlog management.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Oliva, R., & Watson, N. (2011). Cross-functional alignment in supply chain planning: A case study of sales and operations planning. Journal of Operations Management, 29(5), 434–448.

Tuomikangas, N., & Kaipia, R. (2014). A coordination framework for sales and operations planning (S&OP): Synthesis from the literature. International Journal of Production Economics, 154, 243–262.

Türkay, M., Saraçoğlu, Ö. & Arslan, M. C. (2016). Sustainability in supply chain management: Aggregate planning from sustainability perspective. PloS One, 11(1), e0147502.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Airborne Express Case Study

Case Study of Airborne Express

Your Name (First M. Last)


Case Study of Airborne Express

Undoubtedly, Airborne Express and Federal Express are recognized as the two important names when it comes to the business view of Express Mail industry in the country. It is worthy to mention that both entities of Airborne Express and Federal Express adopted a unique form of corporate strategies to achieve desired business objectives. The entire business environment plays a critical role when it comes to the idea of the development of business strategies. When it comes to the target market, than Airborne Express is more focused on large companies whereas Federal Express adopted the facet of the targeted market in the form of small packages. The organizations of Airborne Express and Federal Express have various forms of strengths and weaknesses that ultimately influenced the domain of business.

The aspect of the fast growth of Airborne Express in the industry of express mail is one major strength for the company. There is a large portion of the market which is successfully captured by the company through the consideration of the specific business paradigm. The approach of targeted population is adopted by Airborne that ultimately enhance business share for the company. The business tactic of specificity successfully adopted by Airborne Express to effectively meet the requirements of the customers in a better way. On the other hand, the most significant weakness of Airborne Express is that it never immensely focused on the consumer-oriented approach. The company of Airborne lacking in the form of proper integration of all the business prospects.

Strong market position is one prime strength for the enhancement of business prospect for Federal Express. It referred to as the world’s largest organization of the express mail industry that provides a business edge to the company as the strength. Federal Express effectively consider the idea of targeting the whole market concerning the idea of business expansion. The company of Federal Express experienced the low scope of differentiation that identifies as the one main weakness for the organization. Growing competition in the market makes it complex for the organization to implement better ideas of business differentiation.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Al Dunlap At Sunbeam


Professor name



Al Dunlap Sunbeam

I disagree with Al Dunlap’s view of stakeholders’ primacy because it didn’t aimed at creating value for them. I think one of the most important and essential strategies that a company must adopt for attracting investors. The worst part of this strategy was the emphasis on negligence interests of employees and community. I disagree with the viewpoint of Al Dunlap because the business that he planned lacked ethics. It is unfair to serve the investors only and neglect employees. The income paid to the employees is also created through their work and productivity so it is not right to neglect their interests. The strategy was focused on strengthening the power of the leaders of the company.

The compensation packages at the beginning of the year was $507,054 that reached $2,000,000 by the end of the year. The compensations included no bonuses but value on grants were made. Value at peak stock price during the start of year was $110,724,000 that reached $127,406,000 by the end of the year. These compensations motivated the shareholders to remain part of the company and accept strategic decisions of Dunlap CITATION Bri03 \l 1033 (Hall and Khurana). These compensations offered huge benefits to the shareholders and retained them for long-term. Although the employees were at the losing end because their value didn’t increase with the strategic decisions made by Dunlap. The downsizing of employees was also to offer value to the shareholders.

Al Dunlap created controversies at Scott Paper because 70% of the staff was fired at headquarters in Philadelphia that was also his hometown. The relationship of Scott with suppliers also started to break after Dunlap’s appointment as CEO. He argued that the layoffs were essential for saving the company. This raised tension as the compensations were based on the performance of stocks. The wealth of Dunlap increases due to the rise in stock prices. This reflected that Dunlap’s strategy was focusing on his personal interest. Wealth of Dunlap increased by at leas $100 million. Many claimed that the large compensation received at Scott was not justified because employees were not paid adequate wages. This wealth also allowed him to purchase the stocks at Sunbeam and he made $1.5 million. Many controversies were raised when he was made the CEO at Sunbeam. The first step was to finish monetary compensations for the external directors.

The compensations that Dunlap announces were $1000 for the meeting of board of directors that was previously $20,000 annually. Upon re-election they were allowed to buy 1,000 shares and were allowed to maintain ownership at Sunbeam for 2,000 shares. Charles Elson’s analysis of Dunlap’s strategy criticized that he has focused on overconsumption of low-level stock CITATION Cha03 \l 1033 (Elson). Irrespective of the controversies he managed to make huge success even at the new place. The compensation strategy was in the interest of the shareholders but not in the favor of stakeholders such as employees and community CITATION Don01 \l 1033 (Nichols and Subramaniam). Sunbeam’s decision was wrong because the company made huge success initially after hiring him but suffered loss in the long-run. His strategy was not to take any bonus but receive package on stock options. The company failed to compete in the crowded market because the stakeholders were lacking motivations, resulting form inappropriate packages.

I don’t think if board would have given him more time he could have come up with changes specifically in the compensation plans. This is because his idea was to focus on the interests of shareholders only not to create a motivating environment for employees.

Work Cited

Elson, Charles M. "What’s Wrong with Executive Compensation? ." Harvard Business Review (2003).

Hall, Brian J and Rakesh Khurana. "Al Dunlap at Sunbeam ." Harvard Business School (2003).

Nichols, Donald and Chandra Subramaniam. "Executive Compensation: Excessive or Equitable? ." Journal of Business Ethics 29.4 (2001).

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Al Dunlap At Sunbeam

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Al Dunlop at Sunbeam A Case Study Analysis

Your Name

School Name or Class

Al Dunlop at Sunbeam A Case Study Analysis


Sunbeam Corporation was encountering tough times and when it hired Al Dunlop. Dunlop was an eminent figure in handling business turnarounds in a quite effective and harsh manner. According to Dunlop, the downsizing and restructuring are the anchors to save the businesses from drowning. Sunbeam hired Dunlop in 1996 at that point, the stock augmented at a remarkable pace and became 53 dollars. However, the magic did not last long, and after two months, the stock fell in an exacerbated manner and became 16 dollars consequently Dunlop was fired.

Focus Questions

1. Dunlops Statement about Shareholders. Agree or Disagree

Stakeholders Every time I hear the word, I ask, how much did they pay for their stake Stakeholders dont pay a penny for their stake. There is only one constituency I am concerned about, and that is the stakeholders (Khurana Hall, 2003). No doubt, only a few ones will agree with the statement because of the implied absurdity of the notion. An organization is a singular entity that cannot operate in the absence of its stakeholders. However, shareholders are in a stable position because they pay for the financing of the business, but this fact never mitigates the effectiveness of other stakeholders. Stakeholders of industry include employees, government, suppliers, investors, retailers, and customers, and no business can even imagine completing its business process cycle in the absence of any of them (Ronnegard Smith, 2018).

The pivotal objective of any business is maximizing profitability for all the investors, but the contemporary business archetype has expanded the scope of practices. Therefore the stakeholders are considered as a social responsibility of the organization. Take the instance of Sunbeam case study the selfish decision making of Dunlop impacted the well-being of a myriad of stakeholders, particularly and society generally. The irrationally taken initiatives of Dunlop cut the cost of employees that temporarily proven to be advantageous for shareholders in the short-term. Throughout the process, Dunlop destroyed the motivational spirit of the workforce and overlooked the organizational culture altogether. Consequently, Sunbeam confronted adversaries in long terms. Dunlop even fired an extraordinarily loyal and experienced employee Marsha, who was working with the organization for about thirty-four years. On the other hand, Dunlap shut downed many production plants that, in turn, disturbed the employment proportion of company and community simultaneously. In his context, it is indispensable to deem that stakeholders, especially personnel, are the driving force and integral part of business operations without their prosperity, no business can imagine thriving.

2. Dunlaps Compensation Packages and Motivated Behaviors

Because of the Scott Paper case, Dunlop carried a renowned reputation in handling the intricacies while turning around the companies loss into profits. The perceived fame of Dunlop made him entitled to an ultimately competitive package. In the start, Dunlops salary is showing about 507k dollars that comprised only on stock awards and options without any bonuses. In due course, Dunlop invested a sizeable amount of five million dollars as Chief Executive Officer, and in turn, he earned 1.5 million dollars against his first stock purchase. The underlying motivation of the compensation package was the acceleration of stock price, and in due course, all other external and internal factors were neglected.

Dunlap generated considerable shareholder value to Sunbeam by eradicating the employees expenditures (fired off more than 12,000 employees) and shutting down of several manufacturing plants. Moreover, the first salary package was devised with a feasible structure, but the second one merely pivoted the idea of shareholders wealth maximization ignored the stakeholders position concurrently.

3. Controversies Created By Al Dunlap at Scott Paper and Sunbeam

Al Dunlap altered the visages of Scott Paper and then Sunbeam to an exacerbated level. The modification of conventional paradigms, in turn, caused the emergence of numerous controversies. At Scott Paper, Dunlop boarded up Scotts headquarters that was spread on a massive area of 750,000 square-feet he also fired 70 of the employees. Furthermore, Dunlop reneged on all the charitable donations of Scott, and in the wake of Dunlops insensitive and callous business stratagem Scott Paper started to lose is suppliers. Sunbeam faced similar consequences after hiring Dunlop as he urged on the layoff approach to protecting the organization.

Hiring Dunlop was not a completely wrong decision, but approaches of Dunlop were not practical and versatile. Dunlop delineated only on one dimension i.e., maximizing the shareholders value, and in due course, he forgot to pay attention to other facades that are imperative for a bountiful business.

4. Firing Dunlop Is a Right Decision

By analyzing the case and all other intertwined aspects of Al Dunlops expertise in turnaround the businesses and his approaches to tackle the circumstances and elevating shareholders value, it becomes evident that it was the right decision to fire Dunlop. Through glimpses of case studies of Scott Paper and Sunbeam, it seems that Dunlop possesses a stubborn and self-indulgent, self-oriented personality, and such people are seldom able to shun their haughtiness. Throughout his job tenure, Dunlop only pondered about attaining the immediate and short-term benefits, and in due course, he completely disregarded the long-term prospects. Dunlop and all other CEOs and managers need to comprehend that shareholders value and value maximization never come from unfair and socially detrimental practices. The contemporary model of business practices asserts the significance of human resources and corporate social responsibility in achieving organizational goals. And through such strategies, the benefits and impact will be fruitful for the business in the long-term and will reflect as an affluent society in the big picture.


Hall, B., Khurana, R. (2003). Al Dunlap at Sunbeam. https//www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspxnum26045

Ronnegard, D., Smith, N. (2018). Shareholder Primacy vs. Stakeholder Theory The Law as Constraint and Potential Enabler of Stakeholder Concerns. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi 10.2139/ssrn.3165992

Sunbeam Corporation Chainsaw Al, Greed, and Recovery. (2019). https//danielsethics.mgt.unm.edu/pdf/sunbeam-case-study.pdf

Al Dunlop at Sunbeam A Case Study Analysis



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HOANG KHIENyA -Al Dunlop at Sunbeam A Case Study Analysis Title

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Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Alexis Parker PBEP

Student’s Name




Personal business ethics philosophy

My primary philosophy is moral philosophy is Utilitarianism. I feel very inspired and encouraged to differentiate the wrong form the right (Stuart and EBooks Corporation, n.d.). Typically, all human being should behave righteously regardless of their social classes to promote accepted good outcomes in society.

On the other hand, it appears to be more challenging for me to identify my secondary philosophy explicitly. However, I believe in social justice for all human being to create a whole society. This implies that every individual should always work towards enhancing justice to all human nature as well as to promote equality.

Usually, at my place of work, I use these philosophies to various ways to encourage moral philosophy among employee and customers of the company. Typically, Utilitarianism encompasses choosing the most ethical option that is likely to produce the highest good for a large number of people. Ethical behavior in this philosophy help members of the company to differentiate between what is wrong and what is right (Stuart and EBooks Corporation, n.d.). As such, it closely works to encourage ethical practices at the workplace to promote the smooth running of activities.

Besides, the act of justice is also another essential aspect that plays a vital role both in society and at workplaces. Justice among individuals and employees help in creating a stable relationship between different groups. For example, the philosophy of justice should be used by employers to compensate their employees based on their efforts and experience. Also, truth is used at workplaces to give customers and stakeholders what they deserve. For instance, at my place of work, I serve customers of the company as per to their orders without discrimination and favoritism. The practice of justice helps to promote good relationship among people at the workplace, thus leading to better performance.

Works Cited

Mill, John Stuart, and EBooks Corporation. Utilitarianism. Andrews UK, 2011. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=390854&site=ehost-live.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Allainnah Mandt

Cover Letter

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Cover Letter

Allainnah Mandt

(Street Address)


(Contact Number)


January 23, 2019


Hiring Manager




Dear Sir,

I recently came across your job opening for a Human Resource Manager at one of your locations near my home town. As an early applicant for the vacancy your providing, I would like you to know that I have been in the field of management for over twenty years. Moreover, I hold a Bachelors degree in Government from a well reputed University. Since your firm is more inclined towards the government sector and the vacancy your posting suits my qualifications and skills, I could not think of a better chance but to apply for this position as an HR Manager.

I hold very important experience letter certificates and appreciation records from all my previous employers. I have been consistent and robust with my performance in every organization. My degree in Government allowed me to become familiar with all the aspects of political science and the high demand skills needed to become versatile in the field. I have excellent communication and analytical skills which allow me to be more affluent and productive than an average employee. I am good at working alone or in a team, either way, I can provide results faster than an average person as I have the tenacity to do so. My passion for becoming an HR Manager in the government field would allow me with the most crucial experience and skills. I would know how it feels to become accountable while working in a complex and dynamic environment. If only I could experience it all by myself, I am firm that I will not let down this organization in any way.

I hope you carefully evaluate my resume and my qualifications before coming up with a decision of either hiring me for this elevated position or not. I will be waiting anxiously for a reply from you regarding my application.


Allainnah Mandt

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Alternative Dispute Resolution And Union Involvement

Alternative Dispute Resolution and Union Involvement

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Part 1

Hostile Work Environment Investigation

Investigatory Questions

Taking scenario 2 in check, first of all taking the Samantha stance of not drawing the attention to this particular situation investigation must be done in private room for the sake of confidentiality. Most of the questions to be asked should be open-ended. An investigation should start with Samantha (complainant). Some questions that can be asked from her should be as follow.

Tell us in your own words, what happened?

Ask her to provide the proof of her emails, Facebook status, chats, etc.?

What actions did you take at that point?

Why are you hesitant to speaking up for yourself openly?

What do you think should be the course of action by the company?

What if any derogatory comments accused passed during their workplace interactions?

The next investigative interview may be the person who is accused of harassment. This person should first be told that he is under investigation for his comments on social media. Then he should be asked questions like.

Tell us why are you posting these remarks about your coworker on Facebook?

How often you are posting such comments on Samantha Facebook comment?

Ask him to provide some of his chats, Facebook comments with Samantha.


Identification of Scenario 2 as Sexual Harassment

Comments on social media sites are considered as sexual harassment in the workplace because such derogatory comments place workplace environment at risk. Courts can consider harassment that took place on social media Title "VII hostile work environment claims". "Blakey v. Continental Airlines" focused on sexual harassment pattern in workplace and harassment through gender-based and gender-based statements that were made on Continental Airline's employee bulletin electronic board. In "Amira-Jabbar v. Travel Services, Inc.,” Amira-Jabbar who is black female, brought a claim of hostility in work environment claims that her employer (former) who later become her co-worker posted her photo that was taken at an event related to work on his Facebook account. While the case of Amira-Jabbar is not considered by the courts as sexual harassment, the EEOC position is that same standard can be applied to all cases of harassment. A case related to Amira-Jabbar, employers should take appropriate and prompt actions when they are notified that harassment has been taken place so that they can avoid responsibility for the actions taken by their employees.

Guidance by the NLRB's cannot determine employee's liability of outside workplace sexual harassment an analogy can be taken from high school case of cyber-bullying that help us to determine the liability of the employer in this case. In "Kowalski v. Berkeley County Schools" case courts make liable a school of when they can discipline a student legally for cyberbullying. In this case a senior student from high school, Kara Kowalski created Myspace.com page targeting Shay.N her class fellow. Kowalski invited 100 of her classmate to follow the page and Shay found out about the webpage. Shay's parents filed a complaint of harassment with the school. Shay was feeling very uncomfortable with sharing the same classroom that contains her class fellows commenting on her on Myspace.com page. It was determined by the school that hates website was created by Kowalski which violates the policy of school against "bullying, harassment, and intimidation." The punishment was given to her by the school after which, a lawsuit was filed against the school by Kowalski, and she alleged that the school decided to punishment is First Amendment violation. In this case, the fourth circuit gives the right to the school administration to punish students involved in cyberbullying.

So these Facebook comments may cause Samantha to avoid workplace because of Brody's inappropriate behavior and workplace administration are liable for taking appropriate steps for maintaining workplace environment (Oser, 2004). These questions are legally complaint because they took impartial views from both the complainant and the accused. Also because in this scenario evidence is provided that is easily accessible when asked by any course of law.

Part 2

Alternative Dispute Resolutions

Creating the ADR Process

Using the example of our present IT base company XYZ, some of the things that are done by our organization are

We have written and published policies which not only includes matters like sexual harassment but also matters regarding prohibition concerning discrimination, opportunities of equal employment, the prohibition of gender discrimination, etc. When instructions are in written and published form, people tend to behave in the organization following the norms of that organization (Morse.Law., 2013). First of all, ADR should make the proper definition for what considered as a practice of sexual harassment and how our organization will take its course against the individual involved in such activity.

Establishment and distribution of information by companies regarding procedures how the company receives and where to report these issues. Multiple reporting procedures should opt like (e.g., managers, HR, designated trained ombudsmen and external hotline), which provides anonymity to the complainant. Fairness should be followed in matters containing these issues Training should be given to key individuals like managers about, policies, actions required, the process of engaging with the council

Companies should give training to all its employees about harassment and discrimination, including biases. The main purpose of this training is to encourage all employees about prompt reporting, and it also emphasizes retaliatory prohibition.

Non Retaliatory Policies

Employees face retaliation when they think that they are discriminated and impartiality is not taken place. So it is the duty of an employer to make such ADR policies that make the employees feel that they are treated justifiably. Non-retaliatory policies should be initiated by employers(Morse.Law., 2013). If employers already have sexual harassment and anti-discrimination policies but these policies are unable to address retaliation then current policies should be amended and employees non-retaliatory statements should be encouraged so that employees can come and register their complaints without any fear of punishment and provides just process to report any act of retaliation. Employers should be provided training regarding different case scenarios and how to handle them for example when an employee claims that they are subjected to sexual harassment or any other unlawful activity, the supervisors, managers should counsel the employee about their non-retaliatory obligation. Every counsel given should go through the process of documentation. An employee making a claim of unjust work environment should not be ignored. The employer should engage actively with the employee and tell them their non-retaliatory obligation and process of redress the issue.

ADR Policy

ADR practices such as meditation, negotiation, and arbitration, meditation is successfully used in almost everything from little fights to big wars. The main reason that meditation work is that it helps people to resolve their issue by the third neutral party which offers neutral assistance in a relatively safe environment (Resnik, 1994).Meditation deemphasize punishment and guilt and stresses on creating and understanding a plan for people to get along and work in the future. Most people in conflict are motivated by the use of meditation to reach an accepted framework without taking the fight to a serious level that not only cost reputation but also animosity. Conflict is dealt most effectively by mediation in the workplace because it is the most effective and sensible way while being inexpensive and private.

Similarities in ADR policies

It allows the win-win situation on all issues.

Its main focus is consensus building rather than difference creation and is more future-oriented.

It does work more effectively and speedily by including impartial and neutral ADR practitioner that is selected and agreed by all participants.

Participation is voluntarily done by all the participants.

ADR processes are usually flexible, less structured, and informal

ADR emphasizes on mutuality and reconciliation.


No third party involvement in the negotiation while third-party intervention took place in meditation and arbitration.

Negotiation and arbitration are less time consuming than arbitration.


Employers should be provided training regarding different case scenarios and how to handle them for example when an employee claims that they are subjected to sexual harassment or any other unlawful activity, the supervisors, managers should counsel the employee about their non-retaliatory obligation. If employers already have sexual harassment and anti-discrimination policies but these policies are unable to address retaliation then current policies should be amended and employees non-retaliatory statements should be encouraged so that employees can come and register their complaints without any fear of punishment and provides just process to report any act of retaliation


Coletta, K. N. (2017). Sexual Harassment on Social Media: Why Traditional Company Sexual Harassment Polices Are Not Enough and How to Fix It. Seton Hall L. Rev., 48, 449.

Morse.Law. (2013)."Avoiding Employee Claims Of Unlawful Retaliation - RMS". Morse.Law. https://www.morse.law/news/avoiding-claims-of-unlawful-retaliation.

Oser, J. (2004). The unguided use of internal ADR programs to resolve sexual harassment controversies in the workplace. Cardozo J. Conflict Resol., 6, 283.

Resnik, J. (1994). Many Doors--Closing Doors--Alternative Dispute Resolution and Adjudication. Ohio St.J. on Disp. Resol., 10, 211.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 4 Words: 1200



Amazon Inc.

Name of Student

[Name of the Institution]

Amazon Inc.

Amazon Inc. is the titan of the online retailing and it commenced as the online bookseller. By the time it started to expand its products portfolio and now the digital store of Amazon sells almost everything ranging from the movies, toys, household items to the electronics and groceries. Not only it sells directly but also plays the role of a middleman between thousands of retailers and customers. The company has its headquarters in Seattle, Washington. In addition, Amazon also has numerous services such as cloud computing services, web-services and is the largest manufacturer the online book reader; its online presence of the company is incomparable. The success of the company is dedicated to its effective strategic planning, exceptional leadership and the ability to deal with the upcoming internal and external factors, both positive and negative.

Forces in the domestic environment that are affecting the organization

The forces in the external and internal business environment have a high influence on the operations of an international organization in both positive and negative ways ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"N7b8eQUH","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Morrison, 2006)","plainCitation":"(Morrison, 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1486,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/CU468A75"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/CU468A75"],"itemData":{"id":1486,"type":"book","title":"The international business environment: global and local marketplaces in a changing world","publisher":"Palgrave","ISBN":"0-230-20957-2","author":[{"family":"Morrison","given":"Janet"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Morrison, 2006). The internal strategic factors that are affecting the organization includes easy to imitate business, losing margins in the few areas, ethical setbacks and controversies, limited presence in the brick and mortar industry etc. The number of online retailers is increasing owing to the industry attractiveness and ease of doing businesses. This can result in the reduction of the profit margins of the company due to high marketing expenses. The company need to do double efforts in order to retain existing customers. Previously, the operating margins of Amazon have been low in the last quarter of 2017 and in 2018.

Amazon’s fire phone project in the US was also a failure and the company had to bear the huge loss in fire phone project. Company has also faced tax avoidance controversy in the UK and the US, it also faced criticism from President Trump over social media. This has resulted in the disruption of Amazon's reputation and sparked negative publicity amid the public. As compared to its competitor Walmart, Amazon lacks bricks and mortar presence that hinders its ability to attract customers to buy stuff not available online. The company has also been facing criticism for selling the counterfeit products and received numerous complains in this regard ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"PjBDH88L","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Wells et al., 2015)","plainCitation":"(Wells et al., 2015)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1489,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/ATUCPHH7"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/ATUCPHH7"],"itemData":{"id":1489,"type":"article-journal","title":"Amazon. com, 2019","author":[{"family":"Wells","given":"John R."},{"family":"Weinstock","given":"Benjamin"},{"family":"Ellsworth","given":"Gabriel"},{"family":"Danskin","given":"Galen"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2015"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Wells et al., 2015). In July 2018, the company faced controversy related to poor employee treatment, poor working conditions and not offering equal pay against the work taken from workers. Employees have been involved in the regular events of strikes and reports have been published uncovering favouritism, alleged abuses, and notoriously poor working conditions.

Discuss the main forces in the international/ global environment that are affecting the organization

Amazon is a global organization and it is one of the largest online market places. It serves customers in the United States, Germany, China, India, Mexico, Spain, Italy, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, and the new names keep on adding in the list. The company has remained at the top in terms of revenue in the US but struggles to upsurge its performance and revenues overseas. A number of factors are affecting the organization in the global business environment despite trying very hard to show excellent performance. Amazon is facing tough competition in the Asian market due to the hostile presence of Alibaba. Alibaba is competing with Amazon on all the grounds, in cloud services, into brick and mortar retail ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qkrQQYOw","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(DONICI et al., 2012)","plainCitation":"(DONICI et al., 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1487,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/PWVZIZSJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/orkqtrjP/items/PWVZIZSJ"],"itemData":{"id":1487,"type":"article-journal","title":"E-Commerce across United States of America: Amazon. com.","container-title":"Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition","volume":"15","issue":"1","author":[{"family":"DONICI","given":"Andreea Nicoleta"},{"family":"MAHA","given":"Andreea"},{"family":"IGNAT","given":"Ion"},{"family":"MAHA","given":"Liviu-George"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (DONICI et al., 2012).

Flipkart is also aggressively fighting for the market share in the international market that is a setback for Amazon market in India. Legal and regulatory pressures in the global business environment also create trouble for Amazon. In the European Union, the quickly changing legal environment has created new challenges for online businesses. In 2017, Amazon was hit by a fine of 250 million Euros in back taxes. The competition in retail and cloud computing is intense and the competing brands include IBM, Oracle and Microsoft, Flipkart, Alibaba, and Walmart and Costco in e-retail. Apart from that, there is also tough competition from physical retail stores as well that is being intensified with the entry of other players.

Another factor in the international environment is the fluctuating rate of foreign currency and dollars. Amazon's profits also fluctuate with the rate of dollars and these fluctuations have had a negative impact on all the major international brands including Amazon. For the majority of its profits and sales, Amazon has to rely on its American market, the core market of the company.

Impact of environmental forces on the job of an individual manager and their role within this organization

The external environmental forces comprise of all the positive and negative external forces that can influence the company in direct or indirect ways. The individual manager in the organization is responsible for making strategic plans that could help the organization in long-run. In case of an international organisation, individual managers have to play a role pertaining to their responsibilities. For instance, a sales manager can do a market analysis for the marketing strategies for a certain geographical area. The country manager will be responsible for performance in areas under his/her supervision. They are better familiar with the opportunities and threats in their business domain and can devise low-level strategies based on strategic insight.

The role of a manager is not confined to getting work done from the people, they are part of the business processes. For this purpose, they need to have an understanding of factors in internal and external environment that can impact business operations. The failure to understand threats and opportunities at a smaller level in the organization also impacts the performance metrics of managers. The key role of a manager is to help an organization attain its strategic objectives by contributing individual efforts in their domain of responsibilities. Thus, a result-oriented attitude along with the understanding of internal and external business factors is expected of a manager. The same goes with the individual managers at Amazon and they ought to play a strategic and operational role in the attainment of Amazon mission.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY DONICI, A.N., MAHA, A., IGNAT, I., MAHA, L.-G., 2012. E-Commerce across United States of America: Amazon. com. Econ. Transdiscipl. Cogn. 15.

Morrison, J., 2006. The international business environment: global and local marketplaces in a changing world. Palgrave.

Wells, J.R., Weinstock, B., Ellsworth, G., Danskin, G., 2015. Amazon. com, 2019.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900


How Amazon became king of the market

Author Note

How Amazon became king of the market

Amazon is a multinational and multidisciplinary company that focuses on e-commerce, digital streaming, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence. Amazon has become one of the giants in the marketing industry and a name that people rely on. Fortune 500 puts amazon in the top 10 companies in the world.

Amazon had a humble beginning. Amazon started off as an online book store. With its mission to become the largest online book store in the world, the company continued and has now become the leading name in the world, especially e-commerce. The name Amazon was selected for the exact same purpose as Amazon is a huge river, and the Amazon Company had the vision to become the biggest online book store. Gradually Amazon incorporated different fields under its umbrella, which lead to the rise in its customer base and also its overall revenue.

As Amazon is a multidisciplinary company, it has multiple different businesses under it, but the main revenue-generating business for Amazon is e-commerce. Amazon has multiple separate domains in different countries to expand its reach all over the world. Amazon is a seller of products and services that covers a diverse range. But the road to reach the top had many hurdles, yet with the never say die attitude, the company came out on top.

One of the major reason for Amazon's success is that Amazon believes in innovation and is constantly updating to bring people what they want and to make their lives better. CEO Jeff Bezos believes in looking ahead many years at how the world could be made a better place. Such a strategy leads to an innovative idea that keeps Amazon on top.

Amazon has learned from its setbacks to become bigger and better than before. Being such a big name does not come smoothly. Amazon had to face many setbacks in its business. The main thing was the drive to keep ongoing. Amazon experimented with many things, and most of them did not succeed at first. The e-book reader “Kindle” was worked on without any prior knowledge of hardware at Amazon. Yet after failures, the efforts became fruitful, and the company started exploring new avenues. Amazon took a bold step through many different projects and, in the end, was able to capitalize on many of them and learn from the others.

As big as the name Amazon is, it has always believed to cater for everyone. Amazon always believed in diversification, whether it be of product or market. As mentioned above, Amazon has a fearless stance when exploring unknown territory. As Amazon expanded its horizon, it came with the potential of new customer-base and thereby increasing its revenue potential.

Furthermore, even when taking a survey of one of its fields i.e., e-commerce, it can be seen that Amazon has a diverse range of products, which helps to attract customers of all kinds CITATION Gre03 \l 1033 (Linden, Smith, & York, 2003).

Amazon has always given its customers top priority. No organization can be successful without its consumers, and customer support is what Amazon provides best. Jeff Bezos said that the customer is only loyal until they find a better deal. The statement proves that Amazon’s idea of a strong business strategy is to give the people exactly what they want. Knowing the needs of people and providing them with what they want is the key to success for Amazon. Also, catering to a diverse range of people is what helped Amazon reach its goal of excellence CITATION Cri09 \l 1033 (Danescu-Niculescu-Mizi, Kossinets, Kleinberg, & Lee, 2009).

One of the marks of great leaders is teamwork. Amazon is no exception. Amazon believes in teaming up with its rivals in creating better innovations for the people CITATION Paa14 \l 1033 (Ritala, Golnam, & Wegmann, 2014). Amazon has been part of such ventures before with various companies like Apple and Google. Currently, the three giants are working on projects based on smart homes. Bringing multiple great minds together can cause fruitful results.

The above are some of the reasons why Amazon is such a big hit among the people. The statistics also show that Amazon has been doing things differently as compared to its competitors to be able to generate such a huge revenue. The numbers are also there to show proof:

145.2 million Users utilize the amazon app.

Amazon has more than 119 million products on sale in its store.

4000 products are sold in a minute using Amazon

In 2018 Amazon’s revenue was 232.9 billion dollars

Amazon has a total of 750,000 employees worldwide in 2019.

Such huge numbers give Amazon a lead when it comes to the market share, and it can be called the king of the market. Amazon has left behind many of its competitors in the same race e.g., Walmart, to reach a high sport among the top organizations of the world.

Amazon started with a small idea but a great vision to become the leading and the biggest online book store in the world. Through determination and persistence and hard work of the management, Amazon has made its way to becoming the largest company in the world, and it is in the race to become the 1st company to reach the trillion-dollar mark. With its diverse model and similarly diverse customer-base, Amazon has achieved a stronghold on the market. Giving priority to customers and having a strong innovative mindset made Amazon capable of achieving such a huge feat. Achieving greatness takes a lot of effort, and Amazon managed to pull it off.


BIBLIOGRAPHY Danescu-Niculescu-Mizi, C., Kossinets, G., Kleinberg, J., & Lee, L. (2009). How Opinions are Received by Online Communities:A Case Study on Amazon.com Helpfulness Votes.

Linden, G., Smith, B., & York, J. (2003). Amazon.com Recommendations : Item-to-Item Collaborative Filtering. Industry Report .

Ritala, P., Golnam, A., & Wegmann, A. (2014). Coopetition-based business models: The case of Amazon.com. Industrial Marketing Management, 236-249.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Amazon Case Study

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Amazon Case Study

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A Brief History of Amazon

In 1994, Jeffery P. Bezos founded a retailing marvel, Amazon the company got incorporated in the same year while, Amazon.com went online in 1995. Amazons headquarters is located in Seattle, Washington, and it is acknowledged as a significant service provider of cloud computing as well. The suggested name and logo of the company feature a deliberate effort to associate the retailer with the most magnificent river and first alphabet somehow, the notion rendered to depict the superiority and expanded scope of the operations. Similarly, the logo connects A to Z with the help of an arrow that asserts that the retailer deals with everything from A-Z. Initially, books were the major products offered by Amazon, however by the time the retailer inflated and enwrap the idea of larger inventory-base.

Amazons underlying operations are comprised of e-commerce, prescription drugs, cloud services, groceries, books, and digital advertising. Moreover, Alexa, Amazon Prime Video Platform are other enhanced personal services of Amazon. Amazon pursues a well-devised stratagem on all its operational and functional levels that, in turn, substantiating its prevalence as a retailer. Consequently, in 2018, the companys net income demonstrates a figure of 10.1 billion dollars, which is a threefold augmentation from the previous year (2017). Furthermore, the revenue gains of 31 reflected on income expansion. According to statistics, the current ratio of Amazon for the year 2018 is 110 (Investopedia, 2019). Amazons product profile is laden with multipurpose devices, gadgets, and commodities some people disparage the overreach surveillance potency of Amazons household devices and delineate it as an anti-competitive entity. Yet, no one can deny the versatility of Amazon and slyness to juggle with all the mtier at the same time.

Functional-Level Strategies of Amazon

Functional-level strategies can be defined as the regular and day-to-day tactics which are developed to sustain the completion of business and corporate-level strategies in a broader perspective. The functional strategy is subject to be devised and implemented according to the provided instructions and archetype of top-level management (Abrheim, 2015). In the following, a description of Amazons functional-strategies, which it follows to elevate its efficiency, customer responsiveness, and product quality is given.

Efficiency Amazon emphasizes swift and accurate product delivery and therefore invested a massive amount of resources and endeavors to its distribution networks. In due course, Amazon has established more than forty distributional centers only within the premises of the United States. Moreover, the networks are efficiently equipped with sophisticated software that analyzes the patterns of customer purchases and suggests Amazon regarding the orders and implied charges and time to mark and shut the delivery. Throughout the process, Amazon strives to reduce the cost of inventory storage meanwhile, through practical implications of economic order quantity, Amazon never runs out of the stock. Consequently, the effectively disseminated distribution network allows Amazon to decrease the delivery time and also reduces the overall cost of delivery (Hill, Jones Schilling, 2015).

Customer Responsiveness Customer responsiveness needs the ultimate commitment of the organization towards innovation, quality, and efficiency. Moreover, in due course, the company needs to comprehend the wants of customers, and when they want it, the customer responsiveness demands to pivot all the interrelated aspects of consumers. Amazon is a consumers centric retailer that puts the customers at the nexus of all business practices. In due course, Amazon ensures quick and hassle-free ordering process and delivery. Amazon utilizes the data to customize the ordering preferences according to the unique personalities and buying patterns of customers. Secondly, Amazon believes in the potent of empowering customers by proffering them with opportunities to make rational purchase decisions. For this purpose, Amazon allows customers to give their reviews and feedback right under the offered products so prospect consumers could decide the efficacy of product features along with other factors before ordering it. However, in the recent business environment, several other companies are practicing a similar review and transparent feedback strategy, but Amazon is the pioneer who paved the path for such a courageous initiative. The scope of such an effort encapsulates the accountability of manufacturers regarding quality standards. Similarly, customer loyalty is the most integral and inevitable faade of Amazons functional strategy. Amazon focuses on the notion of helpfulness while serving its customers, and from inception it is adhered to this principle strictly. In this context, Amazon stays agile in inspecting the efficacy of its services and assures the customers satisfaction through conducting and analyzing different sporadic surveys. As a result, such surveys play a crucial role in enhancing the sales events and alluring the loyalty and commitment of customers toward Amazon (Collomb, 2018). According to Bezos, our customers are loyal to us right up until the second somebody offers them a better service, and I love that, it is super motivating for us (Robsichon, 2017).

Product Quality Quality is a parameter that is evaluated in the relevance of offered services and goods. In the absence of products quality, no business can imagine attaining competitive advantages. The product quality incorporates the idea of value and utility provided to the consumers by service providers or manufacturers. Evidently, Amazon deals with a myriad of sellers in order to proffer customers with a vast range of products from A-Z. And in due course, Amazon compels all of its sellers complying with the declared policies, guidelines, and laws of Amazon. Amazon understands that all its local and global customer-base have confidence while making a purchasing decision at Amazon, and therefore, it is imperative to authenticate the reliability and credibility regarding the product quality that should be harmonized with the advertised commodity (Amazon Seller, 2019).

Product Quality Meanings for Amazon and How Has Innovation Helped Amazon Improve Its Efficiency, Customer Responsiveness, and Product Quality

According to Amazon, the quality is all about accelerating the excellence of offered and provided products and services. In due course, Amazon developed policies and guidelines to mitigate the perils of counterfeit products as well as possibilities of damaged and expired commodities (Amazon Seller, 2019). Amazon is a company that never tires of lifting itself even after attaining the peak of excellence the persistent development and strive for innovation listed Amazon in Fast Companys Most Innovative Companies List (Robsichon, 2017). Jeff Bezos is continuously integrating the conceptualization of agility and size that yield fruition for the business. Through the notion of innovation, Amazon deems three fundamental initiatives that, in turn, drive Amazon toward the path of exceptional accomplishment. First of all, Amazon is nurturing a membership program that permeates into the conventional realm of brick-and-mortar outlets and connects Amazons online business with a physical world. Secondly, Amazon follows a livid thinking and perpetual development of logistics and interrelated facilities. And thirdly, Amazon has established warehouses where high-tech robotics machinery assists Amazons employees in proceeding the orders and deliveries (Robsichon, 2017). In this context, Amazon underlines the significance of practicing innovation through the expansion and substantiality of distribution channels and centers. Amazon believes in the automation of the business process that simultaneously augments its efficiency, addresses customer responsiveness and product quality dimensions.

Recommendations for Amazon in Sustaining Its Competitive Advantage in the Online Retail Business

By analyzing the details of Amazons functional-level strategies and other practices in the attainment of efficiency, customer responsiveness, and product quality, it becomes evident that Amazon is exerting outstanding and productive endeavors. Amazon is a digitized retailer and extracting the utmost essence of online retailing through the development and incorporation of logistic and distribution automated procedurals. Amazon has stabilized its rapport and reputation in different markets and reaping enviable returns on investment. It seems impossible to pinpoint any weak or recommendable grounds for such a smart, agile, up-to-date, and dynamic company. However, Amazon should observe its scrutinizing policies regarding its sellers. In the past, it happened that clients complained regarding counterfeited products, and such unpleasant occurrences can tarnish the loyal customer-base of Amazon. Therefore, Amazon should be more open, transparent, and blunt with authorized sellers about its quality standards and underlying penalties in case of violation. Amazon should infuse the requirements of ISO 9001 certification with the help of third-party auditors to evaluate the sellers credibility and quality standards, and after strict and cautious assessment, the sellers who mark the desired score will be forwarded to Amazon for selling commodities. In this way, Amazon could secure the privacy of sellers, along with practicing a secure approach to managing a huge seller base. Such initiatives are also practical from logistic and distribution standpoint because it is relatively convenient to enforce policies and implications of customer service from sellers stage instead of managing the integrity of the supply chain of more than two million sellers. Moreover, automated shutting of a listing should be revised and restricted because some customers can falsely claim a product to be counterfeit, and in such cases shutting down of listing costs Amazon and sellers thousands of dollars. Regardless of anything, Amazon is a thriving and most significant digitized retailer and is already attaining all the competitive advantages over rivals. In order to maintain its supremacy, Amazon should never shun the starvation for constant innovation.

Work Cited

Abrhiem, Talil. Management Performance through Functional-Level Strategies. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2015.

Amazon.Com Online Shopping For Electronics, Apparel, Computers, Books, Dvds More.Amazon.Com, 2019, https//www.amazon.com/. Accessed 5 Dec 2019.

Amazon Product Authenticity And Quality - Amazon Seller Central.Sellercentral.Amazon.Com, 2019, https//sellercentral.amazon.com/gp/help/external/G202010130languageen_US. Accessed 5 Dec 2019..

Collomb, Jerome. 3 Customer-Centric Lessons From Amazon. Myfeelback, 2018, https//www.myfeelback.com/en/blog/customer-centric-lessons-amazon. Accessed 5 Dec 2019.

Hill, Charles W. L et al.Strategic Management. 2015.

Robischon, Noah. Get Ready For 5G To Make Your Phone Even More Addictive.Fast Company, 2017, https//www.fastcompany.com/90437800/get-ready-for-5g-to- make-your-phone-even-more-addictive. Accessed 5 Dec 2019.


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Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Amazon Vs Alibaba

Amazon vs Alibaba

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

Amazon vs Alibaba

About the Companies

Amazon Inc.

Amazon is a US-Based multinational technology company that has operations in several countries and regions of the world. Amazon is based in Seattle, Washington focuses mainly on e-commerce, digital streaming, cloud computing, and artificial intelligence. The company is known and considered as one of the top technology companies in the world which are counted in the list of Google, Apple, and Facebook, etc. The company is highly known for the level of its presence in the world, its distribution to the customers and market place, as well as it is highly appreciated for its mass scale technological innovation.

Being a multinational company, Amazon is the world’s largest e-commerce platform that works as an artificial intelligence provider and cloud computing platform based on its financial performance and market capturing in the sectors. By revenue in the international market, Amazon is the largest and most successful internet company in the world while it is listed as the second-largest private employer in the state of America while one of the most valuable companies in the international marketplace. By revenue and in the overall international market (not only based on the e-commerce and internet), but Amazon is also the second-largest company in the world.

Alibaba Group

Alibaba Group Holding Limited is a Chinese is an international company that operates as a conglomerate entity in the global market place. The company is specialized in e-commerce, technology, retail, and the internet. Alibaba Group currently operates in more than a few markets in the world that provides consumer to consumer, business to consumer and business to business sales services through the web portal (Ming 2018).

Beyond that, the company is also specialized in offering services such as electronic payments through the internet, cloud computing, and shopping search engine to its customers around the globe. Alibaba Group also owns a number of the diverse array of businesses in different sectors of the international market place (Khammuang, 2019). The company is also named by the Fortune 500 as the most admired business entity in the world.

Key Issues facing Amazon Management

Being a successful and well-established company in the world, Amazon is a highly well-managed company in the industry in terms of its business operations and performance. But, it is a real fact that gaps exist almost everywhere. Hence some issues are facing the management of Amazon Inc in many ways. These issues are mainly associated with the management of the company as well as they have inverse impacts on the company in terms of its business, operations, performance, and growth, etc. In short, the issue facing the company and management is but not only listed below.

International Performance (Weak Financial Planning)

Being a multinational company, it is very important for Amazon Inc to have effective operations and performance on the international level. It means that the company has to put every possible and implementable step to ensure that they have a good performance on the international level.

But, Amazon’s performance on the international level had not been witnessed as impressive as they had to be in the recent time. The international performance of the company had not seen as it had to be because the onetime growth of the company had come to see 15% lower compared to the previous quarter. This issue facing the management because it is associated with the decisions made by the management regarding the Diwali holiday of India (Prachi, 2019). It means that this issue is the result of the decisions made by the company’s management.

Rivalry in the Industry

The company and management are facing the issue which the aggressive increase in the rivalry for the company in the industry and market. This issue of increased rivalry is facing the company because new competitors such as Walmart are aggressively capturing market share from Amazon in the market through strong promotion and pricings against the competitors (Nathaniel, 2017).

Investment and Revenues

One of the most critical issues face the management of Amazon in the current time is the balance of investment and revenues. The company management especially financial management have the issue that some investments made by the company in other sectors such as logistics do not ensure the expected results. The problem because of which the company faces this issue is not much involvement and implementation of technology as required (Prachi, 2019).

Key Issues facing Alibaba Group

Like Amazon, there are more than a couple of issues that face the management of Alibaba Group. The issues facing Alibaba Group are mostly high-level issues that also face the company on the international level. So some of the most critical issue facing Alibaba management are;

Uncovered Gaps between the Markets

Based on the findings of many analysts, the most critical and crucial issues facing the Alibaba Group is the problem of uncovered gaps between the international markets and Chinese markets. The company has problems in these areas because they consider and treat almost every customer of every market in a somehow similar way. Additionally, they also work to satisfy every customer’s (local and international) similarly. While it creates problems for the company instead (Ming 2018).

Financial Performance and Results

The financial issues in the last period of 2018 were not as impressive as the company expected. It means that the company had financial issues to face on the domestic and international levels. Here, the company had been hit by multiple headwinds at one time where the company was expected to generate $35 billion sales minimum while the sales have been seen only $30 billion as a result (Khammuang, 2019). But the reason behind this result (issue) is the ineffective financial planning of the company which also led to not ensuring the predicted dividends from the business expansion.

Unimpressive Global Performance (up to an extent)

Alibaba Group is an international company that operates beyond China and its markets. But, there is an issue facing the company’s management. The issue facing the management of the company is the unimpressive performance of the company in the global market while being a multinational company. This issue facing the management because the management is required to identify that why the company is still hugely relying on the revenues from the Chinese market as well as what are the reasons or problems behind (Khammuang, 2019).

Impact on International Environment on the Issues

International Environment and Issues Facing Amazon

Being an international entity, the international environment has huge impacts on each of the issues facing Amazon Management.

Firstly, the international environment impacts the issue of the international performance of Amazon positively. It impacts positively because it enables the company to overcome its financial troubles faced in a particular market by performing well in the international market (Christmann, 2014).

In terms of rivalry, the international environment impacts the issue by making it more difficult for the company to compete as new competitors are entering the global industry.

While the issue of the investment and revenues in the logistics by the company can be empowered by the international environment. It could be empowered by the global environment because it (global environment) could enable the company to generate more revenues and implement the required technology so that better results can be ensured.

International Environment and Issues Facing the Alibaba group

The international environment or international business environment has a huge role in the business performance of Alibaba group. Hence, the company and issues facing it are hugely impacted by it (international environment) in many ways.

First, the international environment impacts the issue of gaps between the markets in the way that it is going to be made more difficult for the company to overcome this issue. The international environment impacts it and makes it difficult to manage because the international business environment is becoming complex day by day.

The financial results or issue of weak financial planning can be impacted by the international environment in both a positive and negative manner. The issue can be impacted in a positive way because it enables the company to hire highly competent financial analysts and planners from the international labor market (Christmann, 2014). While it can impact inversely because being an international company, it becomes more difficult for Alibaba to overcome the issues in a simple manner as local companies could do.

The international environment affects unimpressive global performance in a credible way. This can be done so by the international environment because the environment provides a wider and widely ranging market and a huge number of customers to the company to target and become stable. So that the company could improve its performance and would not be relied on the Chinese market a lot.

Strategies for Management

Strategies for Amazon to overcome the Issues

Several strategies are there which can be used by Amazon Inc for the purpose to overcome the above-explained issues. But some of the highly credible and most appropriate ones are below;

Geographic Expansion

As the company has a strong presence on the international level, it may not be difficult for the company to expand its business operations and market borders. But it could be a bit risky and taking risks is not a new manner. Hence, it could be a fine strategy for the company to look for further expansion in terms of expanding its geographic. In this, the company would have two benefits, one is they would have the opportunity to approach more sales which would lead to better financial results while the second is that the company would have wider labor market to recruit the best talent for the positions of financial planners and analysts (Nathaniel, 2017).

Product Development

The company can use the strategy of product development to enhance its basis of competitiveness. The company could do so because product development will enable Amazon to offer better products and services which could not be offered by new entrants to the industry such as Walmart (Prachi, 2019). So as a result, the company would have a grip on meeting the international rivalry.

Supply Chain Improvement

Being a multinational company, working on improving and enhancing the supply chain and its operations would be a fine strategy to adapt. In this, the company would have access and better delivery systems to every market and customer (Rizea, 2015). Hence, there would be more possibility of higher sales and better customer services so that better financial outcomes.

Strategies for Alibaba Group to overcome the Issues

For the purpose to overcome the issues facing Alibaba Group management, some credible strategies are;


Alibaba Group is currently facing the issue of the unimpressive global performance in some aspects of its business operation on the international level. So for the purpose to overcome the issue, it is recommended that the company should adopt a diversification strategy. In this strategy, the company should introduce a new product to the market place as well as they have to develop a new market for the new product while not ignoring to improve the existing market (Ming 2018). For this, the company should look for business acquisition.

Market Development

As the company has gaps in managing and differentiating global markets from the Chinese market, the strategy of Market Development can be a good strategy to adopt and implement. For overcoming the issue of gaps between the international and Chinese markets, Market Development would enable Alibaba Group to develop each of its target markets with having the current product at hand (Rizea, 2015). So in this case, the company would be able to target every market with relevant strategies once they develop the target markets for its products.

Market Penetration

One of the finest strategies that Alibaba Group can use to overcome the issue of weak financial performance is market Penetration. This strategy would overcome the issue of financial performance because it allows businesses and companies to generate more revenues from markets where the company like Alibaba Group currently operates.

As Alibaba Group is dependent on the customers, the company growth is associated with customers’ growth. So the company could have better results if they increase customers’ interest in online retailing or shopping (Christmann, 2014). For this, Alibaba Group has to conduct an aggressive marketing campaign.

Costs and Risk of Strategies

Amazon Inc

Geographic Expansion

There are costs in different shapes that global expansion would have for Amazon as well as some critical risks would also be there. In terms of costs, the geographic expansion would lead the company to have more budget than the normal to expand the business operations. While on the other hand, it may create the risk of increased regulatory obligations, risks of unknown tariff and license, risks of socio-political uncertainties and other reputational changes (Prachi, 2019).

Product Development

Product development would lead to higher budgets with the increased operating income while I would enhance the current expenses for the company. But the main risk that it could create for the company is, it may not bring the results as expected by the company and management such as product failure may happen (Rizea, 2015).

Supply Chain Improvement

The costs of supply chain management and its improvement could be found a productive investment even it is higher in amount. But, in terms of associated risk, this strategy may not get succeed because the size of supplier may be larger relative to the buyers. It means that it would lead to extra costs for the company which is a financial risk associated with this strategy (Rizea, 2015).

Alibaba Group


The cost of diversification would be higher for the company because the Alibaba group would introduce new products and develop a new market for it but it would be a good step (if succeed). While the risk for the company in implementing this strategy would include not generating desired results, and may increase operational stress and brand damage (Christmann, 2014).

Market Development

Market development would create additional costs for the company in the shape of increasing its operational budget by the percentage of the company's investment which is not a new phenomenon. But, the risk it may lead to for the Alibaba Group is it might not develop competitiveness as expected or may not ensure gaining new customers for the company (Khammuang, 2019). This means that the investment may be a loss.

Market Penetration

The implementation of market Penetration Strategy, Alibaba Group’s would cost for higher production costs as the company would be looking for generating more revenues from the current market (Khammuang, 2019). While it is possible only through higher sales of more products and services. While the risk(s) of this newly developed strategy for the company would be; 1) harm the company's image, 2) inversely impact product quality, 3) and increase the risk of a pricing war.


Christmann, P. (2014). Multinational Companies and the Natural Environment: Determinants of Global Environmental Policy. Academy of Management Journal, 47(5), 747-760.

Khammuang, M. (2019). Strategic Analysis: Alibaba’s Strategy for the US Market. Retrieved 20 November 2019, from https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/etm_studentprojects/188/

Ming Z. (2018). Everything Alibaba Does Differently — and Better. Retrieved 20 November 2019, from https://hbr.org/2018/09/alibaba-and-the-future-of-business

Nathaniel, S. (2017). Amazon.com Inc.’s Generic Strategy, Intensive Growth Strategies - Panmore InstituteRetrieved 20 November 2019, from http://panmore.com/amazon-com-inc-generic-strategy-intensive-growth-strategies

Prachi, J. (2019). Analysis of Amazon's Corporate Strategy. Retrieved 20 November 2019, from https://www.managementstudyguide.com/analysis-of-amazon-corporate-strategy.htm

Rizea, R. D. (2015). Growth Strategies of Multinational Companies. Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti Bulletin, Technical Series, 67(1).

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 10 Words: 3000

An Ideal Bureaucracy

An Ideal Bureaucracy

Your Name (First M. Last)


An Ideal Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy is established as the one significant and effective form of administration. It is worthy to explain that the domain of bureaucracy recognized as the foundation to ensure the systematic deliberation of the overall system efficiency and economic stability ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"DRpLCZG6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Rubinstein & Maravic, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Rubinstein & Maravic, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":630,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/PIFPTESD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/PIFPTESD"],"itemData":{"id":630,"type":"book","title":"Max Weber, bureaucracy, and corruption","publisher":"B. Budrich","ISBN":"3-86649-263-4","author":[{"family":"Rubinstein","given":"William D."},{"family":"Maravic","given":"Patrick","dropping-particle":"von"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Rubinstein & Maravic, 2010). It referred to as an ideal approach to achieve the actual targets of management to attain the actual organizational power. It is significant to critically overview all the related directions and features of the system of bureaucracy to attain better outcomes. Here the focal point is to critically investigate the current bureaucratic structure of the country considering the approach of an idea form of bureaucracy.

Comprehensive understanding of the current bureaucratic system of the country further helps to figure out its actual effectiveness and propose the prospects of reforms in this specific area. It is viable to explore the actual positioning of the administrative system of the country to further make better interventions about the ideal form of bureaucracy. The current American bureaucracy indicates the existence of the imbalance form of power between the Federation and the governments of different states. It is the right time for the country to consider the need for adopting some realistic and practical reforms to achieve the actual and ideal form of the bureaucracy. Inefficiency, improper consideration of expenses, and the improper responsiveness to the leadership identified as the features aspects of concern ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zg9FqkpJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hayward, 2014)","plainCitation":"(Hayward, 2014)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":631,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/7JERMTR8"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/7Hi3kAOD/items/7JERMTR8"],"itemData":{"id":631,"type":"webpage","title":"Bureaucracy In America Now Goes All The Way Down","container-title":"Forbes","URL":"https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenhayward/2014/01/20/bureaucracy-in-america-now-goes-all-the-way-down/#724b0023b1c0","author":[{"family":"Hayward","given":"Steven F."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2014"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hayward, 2014). There is the significant need to adopt necessary reforms in the form of basic systematic approach existed in the country.

To conclude the discussion about the need of the reforms to achieve the target of ideal bureaucracy, it is important to mention that there is need of active contribution of the state governments in the entire administrative perspective. It is right time to reshape the current federal bureaucratic system of the country by eliminating the problem of red tap environment.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Hayward, S. F. (2014). Bureaucracy in America Now Goes All the Way Down. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenhayward/2014/01/20/bureaucracy-in-america-now-goes-all-the-way-down/#724b0023b1c0

Rubinstein, W. D., & Maravic, P. von. (2010). Max Weber, bureaucracy, and corruption. B. Budrich.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Analysis - Walmart


Your Name (First M. Last)



The success of business organizations depends on the proper planning and execution of the appropriate business model and the aligned business strategies. The business corporation of Walmart is recognized as an established multinational retail organization. Here the particular focus is to critically analyze the business model and new market strategy for the organization of Walmart.

Business Model

The significant business model adopted by Walmart is a clear example of success for its business. There are three primary units associated with the business model approach of Walmart. These aspects recognized as Walmart U.S., Walmart International, and Sam’s Club. The strategy of low price is the critical and prominent element of the business model established by the management of Walmart ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"GwpNTBLQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Barbaro, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Barbaro, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1631,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/8VBNS3W3"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/8VBNS3W3"],"itemData":{"id":1631,"type":"webpage","title":"Wal-Mart shifting its growth strategy","container-title":"New York Times","author":[{"family":"Barbaro","given":"Michael"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Barbaro, 2007). It is worthy to mention that Walmart sustains its leading position in the national and international market through the main perspectives of lead on price and variety of product and services. The company of Walmart is focused to provide a great experience to the customers to attain its position in the competitive business market ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"IgmKuEMT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Carson, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Carson, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1633,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/PNCQCBQF"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/PNCQCBQF"],"itemData":{"id":1633,"type":"webpage","title":"How Walmart Suceeded in Its Marketing Strategies","container-title":"IoT SALON","author":[{"family":"Carson","given":"Donald"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Carson, 2018).

New Market Strategy

The market strategy comprised of the elements of targeting and segmentation is referred to the marketing approach of Walmart. It is significant to establish that strategy of EDLP is introduced by the Walmart that attained the objective of every day low prices for the client ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"5EOiF1Vx","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Sasso, Ponczek, & Chambers, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Sasso, Ponczek, & Chambers, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1632,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/VTI3H35A"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/VTI3H35A"],"itemData":{"id":1632,"type":"webpage","title":"Walmart Sheds Grow-Everywhere Plan in Refining Global Strategy","container-title":"Bloomberg","author":[{"family":"Sasso","given":"Michael"},{"family":"Ponczek","given":"Sarah"},{"family":"Chambers","given":"Sam"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Sasso, Ponczek, & Chambers, 2018). The strategy of price differentiation is helpful to determine the favorable price for the organization. Lower pricing strategy initiated by the organization sustained its position as the leading retailer corporation.

In conclusion, it is essential to indicate that the marketing mix strategy of Walmart sustained its leading position in the market. The unique perspective of everyday low-cost products is successfully applied by the organization to attract more and more customers at both the local and international level.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Barbaro, M. (2007). Wal-Mart shifting its growth strategy. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/02/business/worldbusiness/02iht-walmart.4773613.html

Carson, D. (2018). How Walmart Suceeded in Its Marketing Strategies. Retrieved from


Sasso, M., Ponczek, S., & Chambers, S. (2018). Walmart Sheds Grow-Everywhere Plan in Refining Global Strategy. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-04-29/walmart-sheds-grow-everywhere-plan-in-refining-global-strategy

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

Analysis Of Ground Rules

Analysis of Ground Rules

[Author Name(s), First M. Last, Omit Titles and Degrees]

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Analysis of Ground Rules

Working in teams is one of the best experiences during the course of studies at college. It is a great way to learn teamwork skills and comprehend what is expected of one as a team member that is vital for the success of students (Sancho-Thomas, Fuentes-Fernández, & Fernández-Manjón, 2009). One of the team experience that I consider the most effective one is of a project team that was formed for the sake of the final course project. The team involved five members, one of the member was made leader as per the instructions of the teacher and the goal was to conduct an analysis of the organizational processes of an organization. It also involved interviewing one of the managers of the organization. Each one of the team members was assigned certain tasks and responsibilities and every member was expected to fulfill the role assigned to him or her as a team member. The responsibilities were assigned by the team leader with an explicit declaration of expectations from each member and they comprised of following.

Every member was expected to take part in project discussions, to take part in group meetings and take care of the deadline as part of the completion of their individual responsibilities. In addition, each member was expected to follow the directions of a leader and give constructive suggestions when needed to complete the project with quality and efficacy. Some of the implicit expectations from everyone was to participate equally and strive for the success of the project, giving the practical example of “the whole is more than the sum of its part”. I believe the vibrant elucidation of the ground rules made every member sentient of their roles and responsibilities. (Whatley, 2009). I witnessed everyone taking care of their responsibilities, except for one of the members who were not interested to excel in the project. All of the other members took part in the team activities and the project was a success at its culmination.

One of the team experiences that I consider as less effective goes back to the time when I participated in one of the interdepartmental matches being held as part of the sports week. Our team comprised of 11 team members and the team participants were all interested in the sport and participated voluntarily. The members of the team belonged to the different sections and classes but from one department. One of the best players was made leader by one of the teachers leading his teams. The leader was highly motivated to ensure that the team wins its goals and objectives, while the performance of the team was not exceptional from the beginning of the match. After one and two rounds of the match, the situation got worse and the opposite team turned out to be stronger.

The team suffered from team dysfunction, the team members did not trust others abilities and anticipated that a few players will contribute to the team failure just after one round of the game. Trust plays a vital role in determining the effectiveness of team performance (Mach, Dolan, & Tzafrir, 2010). Team members started to blame each other for the poor performance and not everyone held themselves accountable for the team success. The ego of the players who considered themselves the stars of the game was higher and got in the way of team goals. The lack of trust resulted in the avoidance of open discussions about the team deficiencies and this fear of conflict lacked open communication between the members (Lencioni, 2013). Overall attention to the team objectives and the different of classes and sections resulted in poor teamwork of members of the team.

The outcome of the team was as expected, we lost the match and I believe the absence of stated and unstated team ground rules of support, help, motivation, trust and focus on team goals rather than individual goals resulted in team dysfunction.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Lencioni, P. (2013). Conquer team dysfunction. The Table Group.

Mach, M., Dolan, S., & Tzafrir, S. (2010). The differential effect of team members’ trust on team performance: The mediation role of team cohesion. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(3), 771–794.

Sancho-Thomas, P., Fuentes-Fernández, R., & Fernández-Manjón, B. (2009). Learning teamwork skills in university programming courses. Computers & Education, 53(2), 517–531.

Whatley, J. (2009). Ground rules in team projects: Findings from a prototype system to support students. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 8(1), 161–176.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 2 Words: 600

Analysis Of HR-related Issues And Their Solutions

Analysis of HR-Related Issues and Their Solutions

Your Name (First M. Last)


Analysis of HR-Related Issues and Their Solutions

Executive Summary

Human resource department is established as the necessary part of the entire working perspective of the company. It is crucial to identify different concerns or issues relevant to the broad idea of human resource management. The global food organisation of Nando’s is selected to identify the particular issues of HRM. This form of consideration further helps to identify how these concerns can be effectively catered in future. The organisation of the Nando's going through with various forms of transition that come up with different forms of HRM concerns. It is observed that workers of the company greatly facing the issue of a lack of sense of belonging. Lack of promotion, and low motivation level. All these concerns exist due to the existing gap between the staff members and the department of HRM. There is offering proper involvement of all the stakeholders to handle the concerns of human resource management effectively.

Table of Contents

TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u

Introduction PAGEREF _Toc10414018 \h 4

Discussion PAGEREF _Toc10414019 \h 5

2.1 Brief Introduction to the Organisation PAGEREF _Toc10414020 \h 5

2.2 Human Resource Management at Nando’s PAGEREF _Toc10414021 \h 6

2.3 Main Issues of Resource Management in Nando’s PAGEREF _Toc10414022 \h 7

2.3.1 Lack of Promotion PAGEREF _Toc10414023 \h 8

2.3.2 Lack of Sense of Belonging PAGEREF _Toc10414024 \h 9

2.3.3 Low Motivation PAGEREF _Toc10414025 \h 9

Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc10414026 \h 10

References PAGEREF _Toc10414027 \h 12

Appendix PAGEREF _Toc10414028 \h 13

Analysis of HR-Related Issues and Their Solutions


The department of human resource management in any organisation recognised as one of the key aspects of success. Today, organisations invest huge form of their capital on the development of the prospect of human resource. This form of consideration eventually helps the management of the organisations to achieve their desired outcomes in the case of both short-run and long-run. It is worthy to mention that there are different and crucial issues relevant to the overall paradigm of resource management with an organisation ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gfMLxcvV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Armstrong, 2006)","plainCitation":"(Armstrong, 2006)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1974,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/TXR5QYJ4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/TXR5QYJ4"],"itemData":{"id":1974,"type":"book","title":"A handbook of human resource management practice","publisher":"Kogan Page Publishers","ISBN":"0-7494-4631-5","author":[{"family":"Armstrong","given":"Michael"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2006"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Armstrong, 2006). It is one core objective of the department to timely observe prevailing concerns and take necessary measures to ensure better organisational performance in the end. The approach of human resource closely linked with the different issues of employees that hinder their required level of performance. The proactive role of the human resource department of the organisation is necessary to assess the problem and implement effective solutions timely. When it comes to the particular issues of human resource management then it appears in many different forms. Here the particular focus is to select the organisation of Nando's as the case study to identify different challenges of human resource and discover viable solutions to handle these concerns properly.


Human resource management is a complex phenomenon that linked with the different forms of considerations. The major task for the department of the human resource in an organisation is to ensure proper involvement of all the departments to meet organisational targets. Dealing with human beings is not an easy task because every individual comes up with different identities and skills. The major responsibility of the HRM department is to identify the qualities of the employees and helps them to achieve a higher level of performance ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"l5fB8gIh","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Boxall & Purcell, 2011)","plainCitation":"(Boxall & Purcell, 2011)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1975,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/EB2UKWBJ"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/EB2UKWBJ"],"itemData":{"id":1975,"type":"book","title":"Strategy and human resource management","publisher":"Macmillan International Higher Education","ISBN":"0-230-36675-9","author":[{"family":"Boxall","given":"Peter"},{"family":"Purcell","given":"John"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2011"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Boxall & Purcell, 2011). Different issues of HRM can better apprehend by considering the example of a real-life organisational scenario.

2.1 Brief Introduction to the Organisation

Nando’s is an internationally recognised restaurant chain operating in different parts of the world. Originally, this business of food belongs to the region of South Africa but it marked its great position due to the assurance of quality food for its customers. Gradually, the management of Nando’s expands its business in different countries by introducing the unique flavour of food to potential customers. It is worthy to notice that the food market of Australia is one of the great destinations for the organisation of Nando’s. The higher management of the food company invests a huge amount of resources in the region and established it as the great target market. When it comes to the approach of human resource then there is a great set up established by this organisation. A great team of the employees associated with the business approach of Nando’s. It is crucial to figure out how the department of human resource management works for the company ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"3C4gbu4w","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Hunter, 2007)","plainCitation":"(Hunter, 2007)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1981,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/VSJNGECW"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/VSJNGECW"],"itemData":{"id":1981,"type":"article-journal","title":"Putting marketing back on the map","container-title":"Journal of Marketing","page":"1-4","volume":"2007","issue":"Apr/May 2007","author":[{"family":"Hunter","given":"Cheryl"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2007"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Hunter, 2007). This form of consideration further assists to identify the specific issues relevant to the approach of human resource management. Exploration of the specific human resource concerns or challenges is essential to propose better practical solutions for the future.

2.2 Human Resource Management at Nando’s

It is essential to comprehensively understand the overall structure of human resource management in the organisational setting of Nando’s. This form of understanding will help to identify the specific issues of human resource management in the context of Nando’s. This form of understanding will also reveal the actual causes of the prevalence of these issues and how these challenges can be overcome in future. The department of human resource management is established as the great form of consideration in case of Nando’s concerning the overall growth of the business. The organisation of Nando’s established as the great food business with the specialisation in chicken specifically in the form of peri-peri chicken. The higher management of the organisation has to focus the department of human resource management to ensure the sustainability of the excellence of the business.

The department of human resource management in the company greatly perform its responsibilities to ensure proper engagement of all the crucial shareholders. When it comes to the proper development of different HRM activities then undoubtedly, the management is facing some forms of major challenges. There are some significant HR strategies adopted by the department of HRM to better deal with the overall prospect of human resource management. All the considered HR strategies of Nando’s eventually reflects the value for its customers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"aFa5WazF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Stewart, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Stewart, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1980,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/7AYFB55V"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/7AYFB55V"],"itemData":{"id":1980,"type":"article-journal","title":"Do happy staff make for happy customers and profitable companies?","container-title":"Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice","page":"275-280","volume":"11","issue":"4","author":[{"family":"Stewart","given":"Henry"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Stewart, 2010). The entire domain of the business of Nando’s comprised of fiver core forms of pride, passion, courage, integrity, and a sense of family for all its customers. The main aim of the department of HRM is to ensure the relevance of all the applied HR activities with these core domains to achieve actual business objectives effectively and efficiently. The prospect of human resource management in the company mainly appeared in the forms of recruitment, training, and reward system for its workers.

When it comes to the recruitment of the potential workforce than the approaches of both internal and external applicants is considered by the HR department of the company. Different forms of recruitment are adopted to ensure the selection of suitable employees for the organisation. Training and development is another core form of consideration for the overall approach of HRM of Nando’s. The department of the organisation is keen to provide different chances of employment development for its workers and enhance their working approach to meet the higher standards of performance. Different rewarding systems in the form of various incentives and promotions are also continuously offered for the workers to recognise their efforts for the company ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EXibn4w9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Madinga & Maziriri, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Madinga & Maziriri, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1979,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/U28CJLR9"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/U28CJLR9"],"itemData":{"id":1979,"type":"article-journal","title":"Why do Generation Y’s Share Viral Advertisements? Implications for the Sustainability of a Business","container-title":"Journal of Reviews on Global Economics","page":"000-000","volume":"7","author":[{"family":"Madinga","given":"Nkosivile Welcome"},{"family":"Maziriri","given":"Eugine Tafadzwa"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Madinga & Maziriri, 2018). Now, it is crucial to observe particular issues or concerns that have to face of the department of human resource management of the company. This form of exploration is obligatory to identify the areas of improvement and offer better practical measures for the future.

2.3 Main Issues of Resource Management in Nando’s

It is worthy to assess the main concerns for the department of human resource management operating for the organisation of Nando’s. This form of exploration will help to identify the area of improvement and find possible solutions. The major issue that exists in case of human resource prospect of the company that it is lacking in the form of proper recognition of its workers. There are many different areas when the department of human resource needs to establish a better position according to the actual requirements of all its workers. It is identified that there is a huge form of gap exist between the managerial perspectives of the company and the personal domains of the workers. There is a need for offering better intervention perspectives to ensure the desired form of human resource management in the organisation. Comprehensive assessment of the functioning of the human resource department of the Nando’s reveals that lack of promotion, high turnover of staff members, and the low motivation level of the employees appear as the major concerns or issues in the form of human resource management of the organisation. It is important to keenly discuss all these issues separately to ensure a better understanding of these concerns and offer feasible solutions accordingly.

2.3.1 Lack of Promotion

Inadequate opportunities for promotion are established as one of the major reasons that trigger workers to look for other jobs. When the performance of the employees is not properly acknowledged by the department of the human resource in the company then it eventually causes disappointment in workers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EVt8FyoV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Cardon & Stevens, 2004)","plainCitation":"(Cardon & Stevens, 2004)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1976,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/5MP362N5"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/5MP362N5"],"itemData":{"id":1976,"type":"article-journal","title":"Managing human resources in small organizations: What do we know?","container-title":"Human resource management review","page":"295-323","volume":"14","issue":"3","author":[{"family":"Cardon","given":"Melissa S."},{"family":"Stevens","given":"Christopher E."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2004"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Cardon & Stevens, 2004). This form of consideration ultimately appeared in the form of a low-performance level of the workers. It can rightly be said that the issue of lack of promotion of employees ultimately causes many different relevant issues.

Consideration of the human resource management perspective of Nando’s reveals that the management of the company greatly focuses its significant value system. The higher management of the company has some form of insecurities as they perceive that the workforce may not be able to sustain the perspective of family values in the business. The approach of restriction or insecurity eventually increases the problem of promotion concerns for the workers. It is established that management of the organisation has the reservation in case of new workers considering the objective of family values of the business. Existence of this form of the gap is the major cause of the issue of lack of promotion for all the new workers.

2.3.2 Lack of Sense of Belonging

It is observed that new staff members of the organisation of Nando’s greatly suffer from the issue of the low level of sense of belonging. Currently, the organisation is going through with the period of great transition at the international level. This form of development requires the application of comprehensive measures to align workers’ values with the overall organisational culture of Nando’s. It is established that the management of the company never takes useful measures to conduct suitable training programs for the new staff members. Improper understanding of the cultural domains of the organisation is one major concern that negatively influences the performance level of the workers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"sW9Widfg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Millar, 2012)","plainCitation":"(Millar, 2012)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1978,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/K4SCWDZ4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/K4SCWDZ4"],"itemData":{"id":1978,"type":"article-journal","title":"Employee engagement–a new paradigm","container-title":"Human Resource Management International Digest","page":"3-5","volume":"20","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Millar","given":"Guy"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2012"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Millar, 2012). It is critical for the human resource management department of the organisation to focus these particular perspectives and offer some practical measures to avoid any form of conflict in case of cultural values of the company. This form of consideration is important because of the inappropriate understanding of the actual culture of the company greatly decrease the sense of belonging for the employees.

2.3.3 Low Motivation

The low motivation of workers in Nando’s is another major concern for the department of human resource management that requires necessary attention. There are different aspects of consideration that are associated with this particular issue. It is the core duty of the human resource department of the company to identify the major causes of the issue of the low motivation of the workers ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"09jPdGYi","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Danish & Usman, 2010)","plainCitation":"(Danish & Usman, 2010)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1977,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/E2X5LJQM"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/E2X5LJQM"],"itemData":{"id":1977,"type":"article-journal","title":"Impact of reward and recognition on job satisfaction and motivation: An empirical study from Pakistan","container-title":"International journal of business and management","page":"159","volume":"5","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Danish","given":"Rizwan Qaiser"},{"family":"Usman","given":"Ali"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2010"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Danish & Usman, 2010). It is perceived that there are minimal chances of promotion for the workers to achieve different levels of working.

There is evidence of a very insignificant range of the employees who promoted from one position to another. This form of consideration helps to identify that company of Nando’s is suffering from the issue of the required form of a functional staff. This form of application ultimately reduces their motivation level to strive for a higher performance level. The ability to develop and training of others is immensely lacing in the case of managerial entities of the company. Improper involvement of the employees in the form of low motivation negatively impacts their performance level. When it comes to the specific issue of the low motivation of the employees of Nando’s then there are some significant aspects involves in the entire scenario. It is established that the company of Nando’s lacking individuals at managerial positions who can provide necessary training to the staff members. The inadequate approach of leadership talent is the major issue of consideration that ultimately linked with the issue of low motivation level of the workers.


In a nutshell, it is significant to indicate that the human resource management department is one of the core areas of consideration for the business organisation. The objective of the improved performance level of the workers can never achieve without considering different domains of HRM. There are different issues of HRM that exist in the organisational setting of Nando’s. A timely exploration of these concerns is essential to offer successful solutions for the future. It is important to offer some necessary solutions in the form of recommendations to effectively address different issues of HRM.

3.1 Recommendations

It is utmost crucial for the management of the organisation to ensure the proper involvement of all the stakeholders and workers are established as major shareholders. The active intervention of the workers helps to identify their actual concerns and offer better solutions.

Introducing different practical incentives can be a viable solution for the organisation to enhance the approach of promotion for all the workers. Consideration of monetary and non-financial incentive programs can be helpful for the workers to enhance their relatedness with the organisation.

It is critical for the department of the human resource management of Nando’s to successfully develop healthy competition between the workers to encourage them for the better working domains in the form of an increasing form of promotion.

Application of different programs of interaction can be helpful for all the staff members to establish their sense of belonging with the company. This form of consideration will help them to ensure their effective and strong connection with the unique culture of the organisation.

It is suggested to offer better forms of recognition and reward system for the employees to enhance their overall level of motivation. It is the core responsibility of the HRM department to ensure the involvement of each staff member in the form of a unified team working for the company.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Armstrong, M. (2006). A handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.

Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2011). Strategy and human resource management. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Cardon, M. S., & Stevens, C. E. (2004). Managing human resources in small organizations: What do we know? Human Resource Management Review, 14(3), 295–323.

Danish, R. Q., & Usman, A. (2010). Impact of reward and recognition on job satisfaction and motivation: An empirical study from Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(2), 159.

Hunter, C. (2007). Putting marketing back on the map. Journal of Marketing, 2007(Apr/May 2007), 1–4.

Madinga, N. W., & Maziriri, E. T. (2018). Why do Generation Y’s Share Viral Advertisements? Implications for the Sustainability of a Business. Journal of Reviews on Global Economics, 7, 000–000.

Millar, G. (2012). Employee engagement–a new paradigm. Human Resource Management International Digest, 20(2), 3–5.

Stewart, H. (2010). Do happy staff make for happy customers and profitable companies? Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 11(4), 275–280.



What is the mission and vision statement of Nando’s?

The mission and vision statement of the organisation is to always deliver the ‘Nando’s experience’ to the customers. We will take you on a journey, your own voyage of discovery. You will come to discover how special it is to belong to the Nando’s family. You will experience our traditional hospitality, warmth and fun.

What is value statement of the Organisation?

The management of the organisation is focused to enhance its value of the main brand in the form of peri-peri chicken product for its customers.

How many employees working for the organisation of Nando’s?

The organisation of Nado’s functioning is 23 different countries in the form of different restaurants. There are approximately 34,000 workers working for the organisation in different parts of the world. All the employees recognised with the title of Nandocas that indicate their connection with the Nando’s family.

What is the nature of the business?

It is South-African restaurant operating in different parts of the world. Particular flavours is the identity of the business of Nando’s.

Current performance of Nando’s

Currently, the organisation of Nando’s is expanding in different forms such as the enhancing range of its workers and the increasing form of business size.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 7 Words: 2100

Analysis Of The U.S. Legal System

Analysis of U.S. Legal System

Student name

[Institutional Affiliation(s)]

Major historical events that led to the development of the U.S. legal system

In its early forms, the idea of the development of the U.S. legal system came from Great Britain and with time certain historical circumstances and events led to the development of the U.S. legal system. Right after the signing of the United States Constitution, until the establishment of the Federal Bureau of Investigation came in to being, many events contributed to the expansion and growth of the American justice system. Since the ratification, rules were defined for guaranteeing the rights of the citizens as it imposed restrictions on police when it is about taking action against people, but it damaged the justice systems (Pooe, 2019, pp. 377-401). Fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh amendments all were meant to protect the citizens and because of this historical event of signing in 1787, the Constitution and U.S. legal system went through many developments as police were required to possess a search warrant before searching any citizen or his/her property. The police and the concerned, now has to follow a due process before a citizen could be deprived of property, life, and liberty.

Event of 1833- Philadelphia adopting 24-hour policing would be also remembered in the U.S.’s history as before this event, policing was an informal business, only a watch system was used to have a check over people. During the middle of the 19th century with the increase of urbanization, the watch system became ineffective, and in 1833 Philadelphia was the first city that enjoyed 24-hour policing. In 1845, 1851 and 1854, New York, Chicago, and Boston, respectively, replaced the watch system with the Police Department. The FBI was also one of the most prominent agencies to be established, which helped expand the U.S. legal system. It started just as a small operation, having only 34 staff members. The U.S. legal system developed more with the establishment of the first crime lab and today it has become a central part of every legal department. August Vollmer was inspired by Europe and wanted to bring more technological advancement in the legal system.

Impact of Christian Faith on Laws

Religion has been associated with laws long since the American colonial period, when the alliance between government and religion produced tyranny and oppression. Still, today, there could be seen that the impact of the Christian religion over the U.S. laws and tracing the history of Sunday Closing Law is one of the prominent examples of Christian influence over the law (Phipps, 2019, pp. 339-347). Generally, the law requires the observance of the Christian Sabbath as a day of rest required on religious grounds, and the Supreme Court rejected the idea of establishing a clause against Sunday Closing Laws which depicts the impact of the Christian religion over the law.

U.S Legal System in the Expansion of Commerce and Protection of Citizen Rights and Business Entities

The role of the U.S. legal system can be witnessed as it helps in commercial expansion. In the U.S. laws, there is a special reference for the Commerce Clause in article 1, Section 8, according to which Congress has the power to regulate commerce with other countries and within different states. In Gibbons V. Ogden, 22 U.S 1. (1824), the U.S. government-held interstates activity to be regulated under the Commerce Clause and it is the Supreme Court that authorized Congress in regulating the local commerce as long as it involves interstate movement of services and goods. Recently, the Supreme Court has also addressed Commerce in NFIB v. Sebelius, 567 US. 519 (2012) that focuses on and favors uninsured citizens to stabilize the health insurance market.

Since 1976, expansion in the corporation's rights could be seen, as they are the entities that are safeguarded by the U.S. Constitution (HENRY, 2019). In some of the cases, corporations are being granted the same Constitutional rights as the U.S. are given. Considering the U.S. legal system and Constitution, the First, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments could be looked upon as the main protectors of corporations. Court has extended the first Amendments to protect the religious freedom of the corporations and it was said that when a law violates the owner's religious belief, then the company has the freedom of disobeying it (law).

U.S. Constitution addresses the structure of the government that focuses on protecting the citizens’ rights. First Amendment protects the freedom of expression of people as it protects their right to raise their voice against anything if they have concerns over it. Fifth Amendment also protects citizen rights as it prohibits a person from being charged with the same crime which is commonly known as double jeopardy. The same Amendment plays a vital role in protecting people from being deprived of their property and life. The U.S. Declaration of Independence also protects the citizen's rights and promotes the idea of freedom but as a whole, the Bill of Rights, proposed in 1791, plays a central role in protecting the rights of all citizens.

Changes in the legal system

Though, U.S. legal Constitution is protecting the human rights as well as it has provided the government institutions with the authority to intervene, but one change that I want to bring in the U.S. Constitution is guaranteeing a federal vote for conferring a right to vote as it would heighten the legal protection to the common voters (Gillette, 2019). These changes would also set a stage for enhancing the voting experience of all Americans. Another change that I would like to bring in the U.S. Constitution is extending the presidential term limits as the representatives could be elected and re-elected with impunity, likewise, presidents must be given relaxation in presidential terms.


Gillette, W. (2019). The Right to Vote: Politics and the Passage of the Fifteenth Amendment. JHU Press.

HENRY, R. C. (2019). Business Law + 2019 Mylab Business Law with Pearson Etext Access Card: Student Value Edition. Prentice Hall.

Phipps, K. A. (2019). The limitations of accommodation: the changing legal context of religion at work in the United States. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 16(4), 339-347.

Pooe, T. K. (2019). Law and Economic Development in South Africa: An Assessment through the General Theory of Law and Development. Law and Development Review, 12(2), 377-401.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 3 Words: 900

Analysis Of United Airlines’ Image Problem

United Airlines Case Study

[Name of the Writer]

[Name of the Institution]

United Airlines Case Study


In this day and age, it is very important for the business stakeholders at all the levels to make sure that how the project of the company image tends to turn out. Special care and consideration have to be made to make sure that how the organization is treating its customers. For United Airlines, it all wants horribly wrong for them when an incident happened in the flight 3411 that witnessed the forced evacuation of the Vietnamese American passenger David Dao. The incident happened when the management of the flight requested him to remove from his seat and when he refused to do so, the Aviation Security Officers were involved. During his removal, he had physically assaulted him as his face was stuck against an armchair and was subject to abuse. The subject incident lead to lot of criticism for the way organization handled the incident due to the fact that there was a sense of appreciation of the staff in the aftermath of the incident. In this paper, this incident is going to be discussed from the perspective of the management.

Principles of teamwork within an organization

At the broader level within an organization, it is quite important to make sure that they take into account how the principles of the team management are going to be managed at the given point of time. The idea for any organization is to ensure that the swift and coordinated action is needed to be taken when any such incident is faced and there has to be pro activeness at the level of the organization at the particular point of time. Not only that, the effort is also needed to be made to make sure that the situation is diffused. This is where the biggest failure of the United Airlines lied, they were not able to make sure that all the stakeholders and the communicational touchpoints were being used to condemn the incident. Instead, the first communication in this regard came from the Chief Executive Officer also came forward and it seems that at least at the initial level, he was accepting some of the claims that were made during the course of the incident. Not only that, the management was far from taking any action in terms of how the whole situation was managed. The lack of synergy among all the different stakeholders in the organization was visible quite easily. At the same time, there was lack of planning and coordination among all the end users due to which the communication broke down. In some ways, the integrated communication at the teamwork level was missing in this situation.

Best practices for leaders

One of the key thing that the leaders have to do in the wake of the crisis is to make sure that they are following and adopting all the practices that the leader need to follow at the given point of time and based on that action, they should be making sure that how the respective action is being taken at the appropriate point of time. Whenever there is any crisis, rather than denying the whole situation, effort is needed to be made to make sure that the acceptance of the mistake is needed to be made. Now this is where the management needs to be careful. They need to make sure that the team members and the own people of the organization are not thrown under the bus and instead the idea must be to make sure that the admission of the mistake is needed to be made at the collective level. Most enterprises these days will use a social listening platform like Brandwatch Analytics for crisis detection. It’s one of the most commonly employed social listening use cases. Enterprises can monitor real-time conversations about their brand and set up alerts to inform them when there are changes of note. Thus social media strategy needed to be more pro active.

How the composition of leadership influences outcomes

It has to be noted that whenever there is a crisis, the composition of the management plays an important role as far as making sure that all the underlying communications are being made in a timely manner. In the aftermath of the incident, there was not much effort being carried out by the CEO to bring on board other team members and he became the only face of the organization. What it gave an impression that the decision making that is carried out in the organization is such that is highly antistatic in nature as there is only one person who is standing in the front. Not only that, in this day and age where due to the influence of the social media and internet the word of mouth spreads very rapidly, there was not an attempt made by the stakeholders to make sure that they are taking into account some of the other mediums of communication to ensure that the situation can be mitigated in some manner. This was one of the major issues that was faced as far as the whole problem was concerned at the given point of time. Not only that, the other thing that could have been done by them at that point of time was that they could have made sure that some sort of media release, or usage of the social media communication could have been carried out. The other lesson that one gets from the whole situation is that at times it is not advised to make sure that the management or the CEO of the organization should come forward and take the blame. Instead there is a need for the other stakeholders to make sure that how in terms of the other effort among the stakeholders is needed to be carried out. So, the process management is something that could have been improved. In any such situation, the CEO instead of taking the responsibility, initially seems to have applauded the staff who had carried out this act. On the other hand, in the next 24 hours, there was a rebuttal from the same CEO, so the messages that came from the management in the wake of the scandal were rather confusing to say the least and leaves a question mark about how the broader decision making is carried out at the level of the organization.

Judging the success of project teams, immediate and longer term

Most of the times, the tendency on the part of the management is that they tend to look at these incidents in isolation and there is not enough planning that is carried out at the level of the organization. What it means is that the effort has to be made to make sure that the council needs to act in a more independent manner and the long-term reasons for such an incident are needed to be kept in mind. Now, one of the key things that can be seen from the given incident is that there was lack of planning and foresight. The staff at the United Airlines were not really happy in terms of the compensation they were provided. There were logistical mistakes in terms of how the line haul planning was being done at the end of the organization during the course of the whole process that seems to have aggravated the situation. The incident raises question mark about the operational performance of the entity and how the resource management is needed to be done by them at the particular point of time. So, all these reasons are needed to kept in mind when analysing the overall situation. This aspect of the flight is also a nice example of Bastiat’s “the seen and the unseen.” Suppose United had decided to leave four passengers on the flight, preventing the crew members from getting seats. We might well applaud United’s surface humanity because we’d see how it valued those customers and wanted to get them to Louisville on time. What we might not see is the canceled flight the next morning, which was the direct, if unseen, result of that decision.


In the hindsight, the whole incident had left a question mark about the management and the way organizational efficiency of the United Airlines is supposed to be evaluated. There are some key issues that one can see here, and effort would have been made to make sure that the more controlled approach towards the crisis was carried out. The first thing was that there was lack of acceptance on the part of the management that escalated the whole situation. The ideal thing that could have been done in this instance was to make sure that the resource allocation could have been improved at the broader level. Furthermore, there was a need to make sure that the realization was there among the stakeholders that the whole communication was carried out in the more organized manner. Other than that, there are long term issues as well that are needed to be looked at such as how the line haul operational management was being done.


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Anitsal, M., Anitsal, I., & Anitsal, S. (2017). A sentiment analysis of air passengers of top ten us based airlines.

Crowther, K. (2017). United Airlines' Public Relations Crisis.

Cullen, T. R. (2018). (Don’t) Come Fly With Me: A Qualitative Examination of United Airlines’ Public Relations Crisis Following United Express Flight 3411 (Doctoral dissertation, uga).

Su, L., Stepchenkova, S., & Kirilenko, A. P. (2019). Online public response to a service failure incident: Implications for crisis communications. Tourism Management, 73, 1-12.

Teo, T. S., & Lim, V. K. (2019). Overbooking Debacle at United Airlines, Inc.

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 5 Words: 1500

Analysis, NY Times

Analysis-NY Times

Your Name (First M. Last)


Analysis-NY Times

The New York Times is one well-known American newspaper that has influence and readership on both national and worldwide level. Undoubtedly, the success of the business of the NY Times based on its corporate approach that reveals in the form of its business model and certain market strategy. It is vital to explore the business perspective of this company that differentiate it from other counterparts concerning the domain of readership and profitability. Here the main focus is to analyze the business model and new market strategy for the NY Times.

Business Model

Modern business strategies are the critical feature of the unique and successful business model adopted by the organization of the New York Times. It is vital to apprehending that the management of the NY Times shifts the paradigm of the business model to the digital subscription business model ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"aCpkP5Z0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Bullas, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Bullas, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1636,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/EWE7NVZT"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/EWE7NVZT"],"itemData":{"id":1636,"type":"webpage","title":"21 Content Marketing Lesson from the New York Times","container-title":"Jeffbullas.com","author":[{"family":"Bullas","given":"Jeff"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Bullas, 2018). The phenomenon of digital subscription ultimately expands the revenue ratio for the company ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"q27tTp3Z","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(The Report of the 2020 Group, 2017)","plainCitation":"(The Report of the 2020 Group, 2017)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1635,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/WUEUIVML"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/WUEUIVML"],"itemData":{"id":1635,"type":"webpage","title":"Journalism That Stands Apart","container-title":"The New York Times","author":[{"family":"The Report of the 2020 Group","given":""}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2017"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (The Report of the 2020 Group, 2017). Digital and print platforms are used by the organization to attain better and profitable for the business. Advertising is another business domain that is actively considered by the NY Times to expand its level of business and generate maximum profit level.

New Market Strategy

It is viable to explain that the organization of the NY Times gives new and successful direction to the business of journalism through advancing its market strategies. The crucial form of the digital market strategy is initiated by the organization to enhance its prospect of services. Digital operations are regularly evaluated by the organization to modify different and crucial domains of the business ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"D88hp1ib","properties":{"formattedCitation":"(Grunberg, 2018)","plainCitation":"(Grunberg, 2018)","noteIndex":0},"citationItems":[{"id":1634,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/DBUSVDSP"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/local/lMSdZ3dY/items/DBUSVDSP"],"itemData":{"id":1634,"type":"webpage","title":"Keeping the Gray Lady Spry: How The New York Times Is Going Digital-First","container-title":"Saithru","author":[{"family":"Grunberg","given":"Jason"}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["2018"]]}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json"} (Grunberg, 2018).

In conclusion, it is feasible to mention that proper utilization of technological advancement is the key factor associated with the main business model of the NY Times. This particular organization is active to consider the ideas relevant to digital marketing and advertising.


ADDIN ZOTERO_BIBL {"uncited":[],"omitted":[],"custom":[]} CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY Bullas, J. (2018). 21 Content Marketing Lesson from the New York Times.

Grunberg, J. (2018). Keeping the Gray Lady Spry: How The New York Times Is Going Digital-First. Retrieved from https://www.sailthru.com/marketing-blog/new-york-times-going-digital-first/

The Report of the 2020 Group. (2017). Journalism That Stands Apart. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/projects/2020-report/index.html

Subject: Business and Management

Pages: 1 Words: 300

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