Individual Projectunit Group In Organizations
Individual Project Unit Group in Organizations
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Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory
Maslow hierarchy of needs theory is one of the most common and oldest motivational theories. Abraham Maslow presented it in a paper titled “A Theory of Human Motivation” in 1943. This theory is based on his research on prominent figures such as Eleanor Roosevelt, Albert Einstein in his try to provide a more representative account of motivation that could be applied to the public. He developed a model representing the hierarchy of needs including physiological needs, safety needs, the need of love and belonging, esteem needs, and need of self-actualization. According to Maslow, each of the needs act as a driver of motivation. The urge to satisfy those needs motivates an individual to perform best. This theory has been used and applied since its development but one of its shortcomings is that every individual has unique needs and Maslow theory may not hold true in all the cases. Managers and leaders can use this theory to motivate employees by satisfying the lower level needs. For instance, a newly hired employee will more concerned about the basic physiological needs such as a stable income while an employee at a senior position may have recognition and esteem need.
Herzberg’s (1959) Motivation-Hygiene Theory
Herzberg’s two-factor theory also known as the motivation-hygiene theory was proposed in 1959 by a behavioral scientist Frederick Herzberg. He identified two sets of factors that exist in the workplace and motivate employees. He divided these factors into hygiene and motivation factors. Motivation factors are the intrinsic factors that yield positive satisfaction. These factors include responsibility, achievement, and recognition. On the other hand, according to this theory, hygiene factors do not lead to positive satisfaction in the end, these factors include salary, working conditions, job position, etc. This theory can be applied in organizations to achieve organizational excellence by motivating employees increasing the motivating factors and eliminating hygiene stressors. Poor hygiene factors can reduce employee satisfaction; therefore, these stressors must be reduced. In addition, improving motivation factors can result in boosting job satisfaction. Some techniques that can be used in this regard are job enrichment, job enlargement and employee empowerment (Bassett-Jones & Lloyd, 2005).
McClelland Need Theory of Motivation
McClelland Need Theory of Motivation is also mentioned as “Three Needs Theory”. It is a model of motivation, which highlights how need, of power, affiliation and achievement influence the actions of employees and motivate them to perform better. After two years of Maslow’s theory development, this model was presented in the 1960s. People having a high need for achievement need to excel in the workplace, employees having a need for affiliation want stable relationships with others while those in need of power want to be in a position to direct others. This theory highlights three major needs but ignores the basic needs at the same time. This theory can be used at the organizational level to identify the motivating factors of employees in terms of power, affiliation, and achievement, and then goals can be set accordingly for different employees.
Herzberg’s two-factor theory is best suited for an organization having a large number of employees. The motivation factors and hygiene factors cover most of the needs of employees and by focusing on the satisfiers such as recognition, responsibility, and achievement a large number of employees can be motivated. In addition, by removing the hygiene stressors, the needs of most of the employees will be catered and it will result in effective workplace policies guaranteeing competitive salaries and good working conditions. this theory has been successful in motivating employees in organizations for about more than a century.References
Bassett-Jones, N., & Lloyd, G. C. (2005). Does Herzberg's motivation theory have staying power?. Journal of management development, 24(10), 929-943.
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