A disease that appears in the form of high-fever and is caused by the bites of female Anopheles mosquitos is called malaria. These parasites have a long history of affecting the world population. It had different names in different parts of the world during ancient times as it affected almost every continent of the world. Malaria consumed millions of humans before its actual cause was discovered by Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran in 1880 ACE. It is reported that malaria killed countless soldiers during WWII that obliged the United States to intervene and establish CDC (Centers for Disease Control) that was originally focused on malaria although it widened its scope later. Currently, malaria is considered the disease of global concern because approximately half of the world population was at its risk alone in 2017 (CDC, N.P). The latest World malaria report (November 2019) states that: “there were 219 million cases of malaria in 2017, up from 217 million cases in 2016. The estimated number of malaria deaths stood at 435,000 in 2017, a similar number to the previous year”(CDC, N.P). The report shows the gravity of this disease. Now, malaria is a curable disease, but some African and American regions are still vulnerable to its lethal parasites. This level of seriousness of the issue compelled me to write on this. Since its cure has been discovered, a comprehensive study is necessary to explore the ways through which we can eliminate this curse forever.
Although there are many references to malaria being a fatal disease in the Chinese, Mesopotamian, Roman, and Indian literature of millennia ago, but first recorded outbreak of malaria happened late 19th century in Italy which was later followed by the whole Europe during the 20th century when the great wars started. Soldiers of the wars were the first victim of these parasites. Score thousand deaths per annum became common in Italy and the recorded cases of malaria were about 2 million towards the end of the 19th century.
In the early days of malaria's outbreak, the physicians treated this disease by using quinine. Quinine is extracted from the cinchona tree’s bark. In those days, the cinchona bark was known by some other names as well. In today’s world, malaria’s treatment has evolved to be simpler, more effective, and guaranteed with the development of new medical facilities. However, quinine remains an ideal treatment for malaria even nowadays. The disease is treated by using chloroquine, artemisinin-based drugs, atovaquone, doxycycline, and others in modern-day (Drugs Institute, et al. N.P).
Malaria was thought to be eradicated in 1951. The context of this claim was the combined efforts of the US Army and the CDC. The CDC was established during World War II, and it was responsible to eradicate malaria in the areas around military bases. It carried out campaigns and ran several programs to combat malaria. The US army was also striving for the elimination of this disease. They ran campaigns on multimedia to encourage soldiers to use the repellent.
Malaria is common in more than a hundred countries of the world nowadays. Malaria is still not a disease that can be taken lightly. Evidence shows that more than four hundred thousand people die because of malaria every year. The number of cases reported to have an infection caused by malaria is more than two hundred and twenty million on average per year. Malaria is commonly found in Africa, America (South & Central), South Asia, and the Middle East(Carter, and Mendis, P.P 564-594).
The latest outbreak of malaria occurred in Burundi at the start of 2019. It is estimated that nearly half of the total population of Burundi has been infected with malaria. It has been stated also that this outbreak has claimed the lives of more than one thousand and eight hundred individuals until now. The reason behind such an epidemic loss is quoted usually to be the delay in declaration of a national emergency at the beginning of this outbreak.
The outbreak of malaria in Burundi at the start of 2019 was a huge pervasion of the disease. Though it affected a large part of Burundi’s population, yet it was confined within the borders of the same country. Therefore, it is right to declare it a pandemic, which applies to an infection that occurs on the global level. However, it is not right to claim it to be an epidemic, which affects huge masses of people within the same community.
The last reported case of malaria before the outbreak of Burundi occurred in December 2018, in South Africa. It spread across the community and resulted in the loss of a few lives. The government took necessary action, however, as soon as it appeared. People were given aid on the priority, and the case was solved within two weeks (Fact Sheet About Malaria, N.P).
The outbreak of Burundi has not expanded to the US. This is because the outbreak occurred in Burundi that is located in Africa. Burundi is located at a very far distance from the US. Therefore, the disease can't spread out across the borders (BBC, N.P).
The first person who was infected in the outbreak of malaria in Burundi has not been identified. The reason behind is the backward record system of the country for keeping track of events and individuals. The first person affected with malaria in this outbreak is unknown.
The travel to and from the region of Burundi has not been restricted and this is the cause behind the spread of malaria across the borders of Burundi. It has been reported that more than two thousand and six hundred people have expired out of this disease beyond the border of Burundi.
Drugs, Institute et al. "A Brief History Of Malaria." National Academies Press (US) (2004):. Web. 29 Oct. 2019.
"BBC - History - Ancient History In-Depth: Malaria And The Fall Of Rome." Bbc.co.uk. N. p., 2019. Web. 29 Oct. 2019.
Carter, R., and K. N. Mendis. "Evolutionary And Historical Aspects Of The Burden Of Malaria." Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15.4 (2002): 564-594. Web. 29 Oct. 2019.
"Fact Sheet About Malaria." Who.int. N. p., 2019. Web. 29 Oct. 2019.
"CDC - Parasites - Malaria." Cdc.gov. N. p., 2019. Web. 29 Oct. 2019.
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